The Chi-square value of Bartlett's test is Therefore, surrogate indicators are suitable for factor analysis. Table 8 shows the eigenvalues and explained variance of the common factors. It can be seen that the eigenvalues of the first seven factors are all greater than 1, and the first seven factors are extracted as common factors.
From the perspective of interpreting variance, the cumulative total variance of the first seven reached After orthogonal rotation, the eigenvalues are all greater than 1, and the cumulative variance of the first seven factors has not changed. Therefore, it is better to select seven factors as common factors. Table 9 shows that in the component loading of the first factor F 4 , the loadings of F 41 , F 42 , and F 43 are 0.
According to the component score, the value of the factors affecting the investment efficiency of SMEs is a linear combination of 15 alternative indicators. Take F4 as an example:. Based on the characteristics of the basic sample data, this paper selects the Tobit model for regression analysis to discuss the impact on the investment efficiency of SMEs. The regression model is set as follows:.
Table 11 shows the sample regression results. Among them, the Log-likehihood value is It can be seen that the equity of small and medium-sized enterprises is relatively concentrated, the appointed directors reflect the interests of major shareholders more, and the supervisory power is relatively weakened. Independent directors are set up more in line with the company's listing requirements and fail to truly perform their original functions.
As a result, the lack or loss of the supervisory ability of the board of directors is not conducive to the enterprise to make correct investment decisions, and it exhibits irrational decision-making behavior in investment, which is not conducive to the improvement of enterprise investment efficiency. Under the circumstance that other influencing factors remain unchanged, corporate growth and investment efficiency are significantly positive, with a coefficient value of 0.
This is also in line with the reality. Generally speaking, the higher the growth of an enterprise, the better the prospects for development, and the use of funds and the space for utilization are also greatly improved; and the growth will release a positive signal to the outside and attract more The excellent capital investment of the Company reduces financing constraints and revitalizes the capital stock, which is conducive to improving the investment efficiency of enterprises.
When other influencing factors remain unchanged, the agency cost and investment efficiency of the enterprise are significantly negative, the coefficient value is This shows that agency costs have a negative impact on corporate investment efficiency, which is consistent with reality. When the agency cost is very high, it reflects to a certain extent that corporate managers attach importance to their own enjoyment, pay attention to short-term benefits, and often act to enrich oneself at the expense of the public interest, causing blind corporate investment or insufficient investment in high-quality projects, which is not conducive to the improvement of corporate investment efficiency.
Under the circumstance that other influencing factors remain unchanged, corporate equity concentration and investment efficiency are significantly positive, with a coefficient value of 0. In small and medium-sized enterprises, the degree of equity concentration is often high.
The reason is that most small and medium-sized enterprises are restructured from family-owned enterprises. The cost of supervision and management by large shareholders is relatively low. The wrong decisions made by the management can often be detected and stopped in time, which is beneficial to formulation and implementation of correct investment decisions.
Under the circumstance that other influencing factors remain unchanged, corporate equity incentives and investment efficiency are significantly positive, with a coefficient value of 0. It can be seen that through equity incentives, the interests of managers and shareholders can be better combined with the interests of the enterprise.
The decision-making behaviors made by managers are both prosperous, and all damages are lost. This not only reduces the cost of supervision of managers' investment behavior, but also provides a positive incentive for managers' investment behavior. At the same time, salary incentives are often linked to managers' performance, which motivates managers' investment behavior to a certain extent and reduces the external dispersion of managers' energy to a certain extent, such as using working hours to engage in matters unrelated to their own work; compensation incentives can better retain management talents and reduce the negative effects of investment discontinuity and missed investment opportunities caused by frequent loss of corporate management.
Under the circumstance that other influencing factors remain unchanged, corporate profitability and investment efficiency are significantly positive, with a coefficient value of 0. Compared with large enterprises, small and medium-sized enterprises face greater financing constraints. The improvement of corporate profitability will accumulate capital for future investment of enterprises and avoid the problem of insufficient funds for high-quality investment projects.
At the same time, higher corporate profitability will release the positive signal attracts more high-quality capital investment, which eases financing constraints and helps improve the efficiency of corporate investment. Belhadi, A. Manufacturing and service supply chain resilience to the COVID outbreak: Lessons learned from the automobile and airline industries.
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Download PDF. Abstract Small and medium-sized enterprises SMEs are an important part of stimulating market vitality. The key contributions of this work are: 1. Literature review Concepts For enterprises, investment is an important form of survival and development. Overview of DEA By confirming consent input—output index of decision making units of different categories DEA is used to evaluate the relative efficiency Spitsin et al. Model Advantage of DEA analysis is that a production function does not require a particular form.
Methodology Sample selection The sample is SMEs from to , and some samples are eliminated after screening: ST-share companies and financial companies; abnormal data; missing data in the sample. Evaluation of investment efficiency In this paper, gray correlation analysis GRA is used to calculate the gray correlation between the annual input indicators and the corresponding output indicators, and the output weights are assigned to recalculate the new output indicators for the corresponding year.
Table 2 GRA of indexes of input and return on total assets in Full size table. Table 3 Weight of indexes of output relating to indexes of input in Full size table. Table 4 Distribution of intervals of value of inefficiency Full size table. Results and discussion Factors and research hypotheses According to the above analysis, the investment efficiency of SMEs is relatively low, and it is necessary to further study the reasons that affect investment efficiency.
This article will study the investment efficiency of SMEs from the latter, the main influencing factors are: 1 Board structure The board of directors supervises the behavior of corporate managers and represents the interests of shareholders. Based on this, this article proposes hypothesis H1: H1: The board structure is negatively correlated with the efficiency of corporate investment.
H2:Enterprise growth is positively related to investment efficiency. H3: Agency costs are negatively correlated with the efficiency of corporate investment. H4: Equity concentration is positively related to the efficiency of corporate investment. H6: Profitability is positively related to corporate investment efficiency. Table 5 Definition of indices of influence factors Full size table. Table 8 Total Variance Explained Full size table.
Table 9 The result of orthogonal rotation Full size table. Table 10 Coefficient matrix of component score Full size table. Table 11 Result of regression of Tobit model Full size table. References Belhadi, A. Article Google Scholar Chen, M. Article Google Scholar Ciffolilli, A. Article Google Scholar Dallasega, P. Article Google Scholar Daradkeh, M. Article Google Scholar Das, G. Article Google Scholar Diodato, D.
Article Google Scholar Feng, Z. Article Google Scholar Forin, S. Article Google Scholar Ghouri, A. Google Scholar Hu, J. Article Google Scholar Hu, Y. Article Google Scholar Huang, F. It compares how much you earn to what was invested. Return on Investment ROI calculates how much money has been made off of one project versus its total expense.
The measurement of investment efficiency is essential. It helps the investors monitor the process towards set investment objectives and either modify the goals or modify the ways and strategies to get the maximum results and profit outputs. So when you planned to invest your funds in the field of business, you should know the concept of the return on investment? In short of calculating the return on investment, the benefit of investment is divided by the investment cost.
Return on integration ROInt is a managerial tool for deciding that measures the expected return on investment caused by integrating the social and environmental benefits and costs linked with the investment decisions. ROInt supports an integrated approach to management and can be utilized by any company. The energy-efficient building program involves upgrading and constructing buildings that can get the most work out of the power supplied to them by taking steps to reduce energy loss, like decreasing the loss of heat through the building envelope.
It would help if you assumed that investor B holds the more profitable investment. So investor A has the better investment. Then investment A is preferable. The investment for multi-years should be calculated for the same period as the one-year investment. Private enterprises will make the majority of tangible capital investments in a business economy. Fiscal policy will aim to prevent a sustained period of high fiscal imbalances, which might stifle such spending.
The energy efficiency programs and policies help drive the implementation of designs and projects to reduce renewable energies during a critical system or a machine or produce new services. Some residential and commercial codes are mandatory for specific energy performance needs for the materials, designs, equipment, and appliances used to repair and construct new buildings.
The local jurisdictions may amend the more complex ways if the energy performance needs are low or substantial. Some states of America and the federal government have set minimum efficiency standards for specific equipment and appliances like refrigerators and cloth washers.
These standards may need such products that allow maximum energy consumption or command that product to contain special features of devices. These standards may require an average efficiency rate for all product models, a mixture of less-efficient and more efficient products.
Most people can afford higher than average energy costs due to installing less-efficient appliances and flawed insulation systems. Nowadays, various programs and innovative techniques are made to improve energy efficiency for low-income households. But a report from American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economic says that more should be done in this head of investment.
The return on investment ROI formula is as follows:. Because ROI is measured as a percentage, it can be easily compared with returns from other investments, allowing one to measure a variety of types of investments against one another. ROI is a popular metric because of its versatility and simplicity.
The calculation itself is not too complicated, and it is relatively easy to interpret for its wide range of applications. But if other opportunities with higher ROIs are available, these signals can help investors eliminate or select the best options. Likewise, investors should avoid negative ROIs , which imply a net loss.
With this information, one could compare the investment in Slice Pizza with any other projects. Examples like Jo's above reveal some limitations of using ROI, particularly when comparing investments. Jo could adjust the ROI of the multi-year investment accordingly.
One may also use net present value NPV , which accounts for differences in the value of money over time, due to inflation. Recently, certain investors and businesses have taken an interest in the development of a new form of the ROI metric, called " social return on investment ," or SROI. SROI was initially developed in the late s and takes into account broader impacts of projects using extra-financial value i.
For instance, a company may decide to recycle water in its factories and replace its lighting with all LED bulbs. These undertakings have an immediate cost that may negatively impact traditional ROI—however, the net benefit to society and the environment could lead to a positive SROI. There are several other new variations of ROI that have been developed for particular purposes. Social media statistics ROI pinpoints the effectiveness of social media campaigns—for example how many clicks or likes are generated for a unit of effort.
Similarly, marketing statistics ROI tries to identify the return attributable to advertising or marketing campaigns. So-called learning ROI relates to the amount of information learned and retained as a return on education or skills training.
As the world progresses and the economy changes, several other niche forms of ROI are sure to be developed in the future. Return on investment ROI is calculated by dividing the profit earned on an investment by the cost of that investment. Although ROI is a quick and easy way to estimate the success of an investment, it has some serious limitations.
For instance, ROI fails to reflect the time value of money , and it can be difficult to meaningfully compare ROIs because some investments will take longer to generate a profit than others. For this reason, professional investors tend to use other metrics, such as net present value NPV or the internal rate of return IRR. All else being equal, investors who are more risk-averse will likely accept lower ROIs in exchange for taking less risk.
Likewise, investments that take longer to pay off will generally require a higher ROI in order to be attractive to investors. Within that, though, there can be considerable variation depending on the industry. Meanwhile, companies in other industries, such as energy companies and utilities, generated much lower ROIs and in some cases faced losses year-over-year. Over time, it is normal for the average ROI of an industry to shift due to factors such as increased competition, technological changes, and shifts in consumer preferences.
World Health Organization. Real Estate Investing. Financial Analysis. Financial Ratios. Your Money. Personal Finance. Your Practice. Popular Courses. Table of Contents Expand. ROI is a term used in the financial world, it means return on investment.
Definition of 'Return On Investment - ROI'A performance measure used to evaluate the efficiency of an investment or to compare the efficiency of a number of different investments. To calculate ROI, the benefit return of an investment is divided by the cost of the investment; the result is expressed as a percentage or a ratio. The return on investment formula:.
Ecological efficiency. Working capital is a measure of a company's efficiency and its financial health. A measure of a companies efficiency is an example of working capital. Yes it is. It can be used to measure the efficiency of your strokes. Log in.
Study now See answer 1. Best Answer. Returning On Investment. Study guides. Investing and Financial Markets. What is the Gold Standard. What is Standard and Poors. What were greenbacks. What happens during a bank run. Q: What is a measure of the efficiency of an investment? Write your answer Still have questions?
Find more answers Ask your question. Related questions. Which is a measure of the efficiency of an investment? How do you calculate ROI? Is profitability of a firm an adequate measure of its efficiency?
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