Combinational logic circuits arithmetic logic unit binaryaddersubtractor boolean algebra decoders demultiplexers encoders full adder full subtractor half adder half subtractor multiplexer. Control systems feedback control system transfer function and characteristic equation transfer function of electrical circuit. Dccircuits energy sources kirchhoffs current law kirchhoffs voltage law maximum power transfer theorem mesh analysis nodal analysis nortons theorem source transformations superposition theorem thevenins theorem.
Dc dc converter chopper classification of chopper step down chopper step up chopper switched mode power supplies smps uninterruptible power supply ups. Dc to ac inverter half bridge dc ac inverter single phase full bridge inverter single pwm inverters three phase inverter.
Digital logic families cmos and ttl interfaces cmos logic noise margin ttl logic. Digital logic gates and gate nand gate nor gate not gate or gate xnor gate xor gate. Electronic devices diode insulated gate bipolar transistor mosfet power mosfet transistors. Electronic systems brushless dc motors induction motor public address system separately excited dc motor servomotors stepper motor.
Number systems binary number system binarynumbers binary to decimal conversion decimal number system decimal to binary conversion decimal to hexadecimal conversion decimal to octal conversion hexadecimal number system hexadecimal to decimal conversion octal number system octal to decimal conversion. Programmable logic devices complex programmable logic device field programmable gate array generic array logic programmable array logic programmable logic array programmable roms.
Sequential logic circuits asynchronous counter counters d flip flop to jk flip flop d flip flop to sr flip flop d flip flop flip flop excitation table jk flip flop to d flip flop jk flip flop to sr flip flop conversion jk flip flop to t flip flop jk flip flop parallel in to parallel out pipo shift register parallel in to serial out piso shift register serial in to parallel out sipo shift register serial in to serial out siso shift register shift registers sr flip flop to d flip flop sr flip flop to jk flip flop conversion sr flip flop synchronous counter toggle flip flop.
Thyristor characteristics of thyristor gate characteristics of thyristor ratings of thyristor thyristor commutation thyristor commutation techniques triggering circuit of thyristor. During the positive half cycle of the sinusoidal input signal, the voltage present at the inverting terminal of op-amp is greater than zero volts. Similarly, during the negative half cycle of the sinusoidal input signal, the voltage present at the inverting terminal of the op-amp is less than zero volts.
The following figure shows the input and output waveforms of an inverting comparator, when the reference voltage is zero volts. In other words, output changes its value when the input is crossing zero volts. Hence, the above circuit is also called as inverting zero crossing detector. A non-inverting comparator is an op-amp based comparator for which a reference voltage is applied to its inverting terminal and the input voltage is applied to its non-inverting terminal.
This op-amp based comparator is called as non-inverting comparator because the input voltage, which has to be compared is applied to the non-inverting terminal of the op-amp. The operation of a non-inverting comparator is very simple. Let us draw the output wave form of a non-inverting comparator, when a sinusoidal input signal and reference voltage of zero volts are applied to the non-inverting and inverting terminals of the op-amp respectively.
During the positive half cycle of the sinusoidal input signal, the voltage present at the non-inverting terminal of op-amp is greater than zero volts. Similarly, during the negative half cycle of the sinusoidal input signal, the voltage present at the non-inverting terminal of op-amp is less than zero volts. The following figure shows the input and output waveforms of a non-inverting comparator, when the reference voltage is zero volts.
That means, the output changes its value when the input is crossing zero volts. Hence, the above circuit is also called as non-inverting zero crossing detector.
Can we do better? Yes we can. Right now our lambda expression has declared type in parameters i. From now on in this article we will use lambda expression or method references. No more anonymous class. The reverseOrder method imposes a reverse comparison as compared to naturalOrder comparison.
The comparison happens between two comparable objects. Hence the objects in the List must be Comparable i. The method signatures explicitly asks that the object in the collection must have implemented the Comparable interface. The natural order comparison invokes two objects comparison using natural order. The method signature forces us to implement Comparable interface to specify the natural order of object. If the objects in the Collection to be sorted do not implement Comparable then you get compile time warning.
As of the non null elements we provide the comparator in parameter of this method. This method composes two comparators into one. If the country is the same, sort it by date. Two countries in the above transaction were same so they were sorted by date.
The interesting part about this is we can chain more comparators. If the country is the same, reverse sort it by date. You can apply comparison to different objects in class by providing that object in Function and its Comparator. If the countries are the same then sort based on transaction amount. The difference between the thenComparing Comparator and this method is that you can provide a Comparator of any type that goes in the keyExtractor function.
This makes the intent of writing the Comparator clear. This method is an interesting flavor of thenComparing method family. Till now we saw two different flavors of thenComparing methods which accept Comparator in parameter.
This method is a bit different. It just accepts the Function which gets the key to be compared if the previous comparison were equal. The interesting part here is the key that is extracted should be Comparable. Look at method signature, U is the key that is extracted and it should extend Comparable interface. If the countries are the same then sort based on date. Till now we saw methods that compare the reference types. Now we will see 3 methods that will compare based on primitive types i.
It accepts the ToIntFunction which gets the key to be compared if the previous comparison were equal. Refer this link to understand what numeric code means. If the date of transactions are same then sort by numeric code of that country. It accepts the ToLongFunction which gets the key to be compared if the previous comparison were equal. If the date is same then sort by transaction id.
It accepts the ToDoubleFunction which gets the key to be compared if the previous comparison were equal. If the date is same then sort by raw money amount. The comparing method accepts two parameters. The first parameter is a Function which extracts the sort key out of the input object. The second parameter accepts the Comparator of sort key.
First parameter is Function so we get the value out of the Transaction object and then provide a Comparator for the date object whose type is LocalDate. The comparing method just accepts the Function interface as the parameter. It is possible to obtain a high degree of magnification 5 Less costlier as compared to other comparators. Cost is high as compared to mechanical comparators. Working principle of Electrical comparators:. These instruments are based on the theory of Wheatstone A.
When the bridge is electrically balanced, no current will flow through the galvanometer connected to the bridge, and the pointer will not deflect. Any upset in the inductances of the arms will produce unbalance and cause deflection of the pointer. Linear Variable Differential Transformer LVDT is the most popular electro-mechanical device used to convert mechanical displacement into an electrical signal.
It is used to measure displacement. Comparison between gauges and comparators are as follows,. Gauges Comparator 1. Gauge is device designed to compare the manufactured component against the given drawing. Comparator is device designed to compare knownknown, known — unknown, unknown- unknown parameters.
The gauge can only verify the manufactured component is accepted or rejected. Comparator gives the readings of measurement of the manufactured component. Low in cost More in cost 4. Easy to use on the shop floor Needs pneumatic or other sources to use on shop floor 5. Limited range of application Large range of application 6. Comparison between measuring instrument and comparators are as follows,. Mechanical Instrument Comparator 1. It is not give any magnification.
It gives magnification. Skilled operators are required. Semi-skilled operators are required. Observational error is occur. Parallax error is occur. Maintenance is less. Maintenance is more. The remote controlling is not possible. It may be operate by remote. A Uniform response is not obtained. Uniform response is obtained. Used for checking and measurement. Used for comparsion.
Less sensitive. More sensitive. Vernier caliper Example: Sigma comparator, Dial Indicator. Comparators are used for Following purposes :. Currently, he is working in the sheet metal industry as a designer. Additionally, he has interested in Product Design, Animation, and Project design. He also likes to write articles related to the mechanical engineering field and tries to motivate other mechanical engineering students by his innovative project ideas, design, models and videos.
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A pressure vessel is defined as a container with a pressure Knuckle Joint A knuckle joint is used to connect two rods which are under the action of tensile loads. However, if the joint is guided, the rods may support a compressive load. A knuckle joint Skip to content. Table of Contents. Comparators can give precision measurements, with consistent accuracy by eliminating human error.
They are employed to find out, by how much the dimensions of the given component differ from that of a known datum. If the indicated difference is small, a suitable magnification device is selected to obtain the desired accuracy of measurements. It is an indirect type of instrument and used for linear measurement. If the dimension is less or greater, than the standard, then the difference will be shown on the dial.