Prostokishina … Fedorov, A. Levitskaya ……. Gorbatkova …………. Kostogryz ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. Lomteva, N. Vorobyeva, A. Demidov ………….. Lozovitskaya, I. Goloborodko, A. Semerenko, O. Mikhaleva ……. Myslavskyi, G. Chmil, O. Bezruchko, V. Muryukina, V. Saeed, F. Tselykh ………… Korkonosenko… Read more. He is the author of articles and 20 books about media culture, media education and literacy.
Show less. Log in with Facebook Log in with Google. Remember me on this computer. Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. Need an account? Click here to sign up. Expand PDF. Free PDF. Media Education, , 4. Download Free PDF. PDF Pack. People also downloaded these PDFs. People also downloaded these free PDFs. Media Education Fedorov and Alexander Fedorov. Media Education n 3 by Alexander Fedorov. Media Education, , n 4 by A. Media Education, , n 60 3 by A. Media Education Mediaobrazovanie Has been issued since ISSN E-ISSN Eger Hungary Ben Bachmair, Ph.
Kassel University Germany , Honorary Prof. James Potter, Ph. Authors of the manuscripts bear responsibility for their content, credibility and reliability. Russian viewers can watch it on many platforms nowadays: social media, online or cable TV. The goal of the research is to find out what impression SNL produces on the Russian youth and how they interpret its humor. It is of interest if the show helps Russian students broaden their knowledge of the US: its politics, daily routine, key political actors, and analyze what the image of Russia and Russians in the show is.
Two hundred students from Nizhny Novgorod universities took part in the survey and shared their views on US late night comedy. The research proves that American late night comedy shows can be not only entertainment for young Russians, but useful educational material on the US politics, social life, and culture.
The program might be helpful in studying English. Since s, political candidates and public figures in the USA have been using late night comedy as a platform for promoting their ideas and programs, shaping or improving their images as well as fighting with their opponents.
At the same time, comedians, under the masks of well-known politicians or show business celebrities, have been creating characters that have become inseparable from them. The show has become a tool in political campaigns supporting democratic candidates and making fun of Republicans.
In the era of online media, SNL has provided access to its content to viewers all over the world, including the Russian public, which now has opportunities to watch the show on different platforms. The goal of the research is to find out whether SNL has fans among Russian students, what impression it produces on them and how they understand its humor.
It is of interest if the show helps the Russian youth broaden their knowledge of the US: its politics, daily issues, key political actors, and what they think about the image of Russia and Russians in the show.
Academic works as well as mass media publications on SNL and late night comedy have been under scrutiny. Discussion Humor is a part of our life. It is with us in professional and personal relations, in education and entertainment, in literary and political discourse. However, scholars find it difficult to define the term. There is a mathematical approach to humor expressed in a formula, coined by co-founder of Russian youth humorist program KVN A. Thus, it is often difficult to get into the subtleties of a foreign laugh culture, which demands knowing the background, personas, current problems, and approaches to conflict resolution.
We should also take into account «the audience is formed by its social, cultural, and political perspectives and beliefs, which are often very different or even conflicting» Fedorov, Levitskaya, We may classify political gags according to metaphors they apply Droog et al, , but not all metaphors can be deciphered on a global level, some of them are for local consumption.
For that reason, comedy shows are important means of communication that help the elite and the public understand each other. Foreigners may learn about the country and its people by watching comedy programs. SNL is a program for American public, but recently has received international recognition.
In Russia, the audience has access to the show via You Tube, social media VKontakte, Facebook , or online cinema services Kinopoisk, kino. The show has a long history. A celebrity guest, the key person of the program, usually takes part in sketches with the cast, and musical performances has always been its important part.
The show has made fun of many politicians, and at the same time helped some of them communicate with the audience and fight for electorate. It has always supported Democratic Party and promoted liberal values. In publications, which focus on potential persuasive effects of social and political humor Nabi et al.
Some scholars are sure that parodies and comic gags may build up or destroy reputations and affect the electorate choice Baumgartner, ; , Baumgartner et al. They may also inform the viewers or manipulate them. Political parody started on SNL in , before presidential elections, when the year-old Dan Aykroyd, who played kindhearted Jimmy Carter Democratic candidate , and Chevy Chase, parodying Gerald Ford Republican, the US president , in series of humorous duels debated on different issues: economics, life style, and even the manner of dressing SNL, season 2, October 16, SNL portrayed G.
Ford as an incompetent president, but promoted his opponent. The format was a success, and since then political parody has become an inseparable part of the show Peifer, Landreville. Moreover, Gerald Ford appeared in the show in person trying to attract the young audience and change their attitude to him. Having lost elections, he questioned whether it was worth taking part in the show, but later concluded that the decision was the right one Brownell, In — s SNL was concentrated mainly on entertainment, and politics was not its focal point.
In s, late night comedy programs became highest-rated. Many comedy show hosts, David Letterman being one of them, understood that the road to the White House ran through them Lichter et al. Comedy format attracted politicians who were looking for the chance to present themselves and their programs in an informal manner.
Since s, participation in late night comedy programs has become a part of political campaigning and image building. SNL has invited politicians and celebrities to have their say, but parody remained its non-changing feature. However, in s humor on SNL has turned to be overall pro-democratic, Republican presidential candidates have been targeted with greater frequency than Democratic candidates Lichter et al.
Many Russians have been interested in American politics, lifestyle and culture. The first sketch was neutral, but other eight — insulting for the Russian leader. However, the fact that the show is Russophobic has not distracted Russian fans from watching it. In , SNL introduced a new character Kate McKinnon , a Russian correspondent on Weekend Update, who comes from a remote Ural village where there are no traces of civilization, bears are walking along the streets, and wolves are chasing lonely girls at night.
She tells Seth Meyers about the recent meteor explosion near her home as well as misery, poverty and hunger SNL, season 38, Feb. She is an aborigine from horrible and disastrous Russia where nobody would like to live. Russian and Soviet movies as well as TV shows may also present the Western world as gloom and doom Fedorov, President V.
Putin, parodied by Beck Bennett, appears in SNL as a bare-chested dictator, his role in all episodes is to diminish Donald Trump and declare him a Russian marionette. Putin is a media stereotype with schematic and stable features Fedorov, : president-tsar, aggressive, cynical and respecting only strength. That is how the Western mass media often shows him. It aimed to reveal those who are interested in the US events and watch American late night comedy shows, SNL being in the list.
Answering the questionnaire, students confessed that got information about the US from different sources; social media were the priority for them. Table 1. Nevertheless, students from all the respondents were sure that Jo Biden was President. Table 2. Table 3. They prefer shows in original as it helps them improve their knowledge of English. Ten students, who watch SNL at least once in two weeks, agreed to share their impressions on episodes of different periods in May — June There were no obligations on what content to consume, but there was a suggestion to think on how Russia is presented in the show.
Eight students out of ten were from Nizhny Novgorod Linguistic University, they estimated their knowledge of English as intermediate or upper intermediate. Six of them prefer to watch the show in English with captions. Two of the interviewees, who have had experience of living and studying in the USA, prefer to watch the show in English without captions.
Two students from Lobachevski State University conduct research on the US journalism or political campaigning, they read a lot in English but cannot understand comedy sketches in English and watch the show in Russian. Eight students find the show hilarious, and two — controversial as they assume that some parodies are vulgar.
Interviewees have named the following impersonations as the most memorable: - Donald Trump Alec Baldwin — 10 students. All ten students marked the program on May 8, , which Elon Musk hosted, as very special. They enjoyed his jokes and admired his mother who assisted Elon in the show. Students think that the actor have succeeded in portraying the President and managed to catch some specific features of the politician.
Two students mentioned episodes with Olya Polatovskaya Kate McKinnon and confessed that though the sketches were weird and full of anti-Russian sentiments, nevertheless, they laughed watching them. When asked to describe in a free form their impressions of SNL the respondents mentioned that they learnt a lot about the US from the show, and all students, even those who watch the show in Russian, said that it was an opportunity to improve English language skills.
Number of students Good entertainment 10 Useful information about the US 8 Good way to improve your English 8 Good music 7 You meet celebrities and get to know more about them 6 Example of democracy: you may laugh at political leaders 2 Students think that they get some useful information about the US from the show. However, they cannot understand the sketches, which show Senate or Supreme Court hearings. Interviewees would love to see more parodies on show business celebrities as well as musical episodes in the show.
They enjoy political satire and consider it a feature of real democracy. Conclusion American late night comedy shows have always been not only entertainment but also a source of knowledge about the current events in the USA. Saturday Night Live, the most long-lasting night comedy project on American TV, is popular with those young Russians who try to catch up with international news and enjoy American laugh culture.
They may watch the program on social media, first, YouTube, or online-cinema platforms. The research proves that SNL helps the Russian youth in broadening their knowledge of the US politics, social life, but students do not get the sense of some sketches and gags because they are not well enough aware of American government structure as well as the process of decision-making on different levels.
In order to get better understanding of the program content students need professional commentaries. Parodies on candidates fighting for opening positions in the US Supreme Court are of no interest to the students, as they have no clue about the role of this institute. SNL provides good material for analysis, but students need to apply critical thinking while being acquainted with its content.
Some of the interviewees do not approve of evil lampoons on Russia, but there are students who find them hilarious. It is very important to analyze in research projects how Russia is presented in comedy shows and whether jokes and gags are a part of information wars. Comedy programs, like SNL, might help in mastering English and can be a part of special courses on American government and politics, media and culture. Kurs veselykh nauk [Course in the Merry Sciences].
No laughing matter? Humor — International Journal of Humor Research. DOI: Comedy Studies. Baumgartner et al. C, Lichter S. Research note: negative news and late-night comedy about presidential candidates. International Journal of Communication: Presidential Studies Quarterly. Popular Communication. The International Journal of Media and Culture. How satirists alternate between discursive modes: an introduction of the humoristic metaphors in satirical news HMSN Typology.
International Journal of Communication. Media stereotypes analysis in the classroom at the student audience. European Journal of Contemporary Education. Russian Education and Society. Media Education. Public engagement, propaganda, or both?
Attitudes toward politicians on political satire and comedy programs. NY: 21st Century Books: Kitaeva, — Kitaeva, K. Politics Is a Joke! NY: Routledge: All joking aside: A serious investigation into the persuasive effect of funny social messages.
Communication Monographs. The democratic roles of satirists, Popular Communication. Spoofing Presidential Hopefuls: The Roles of affective disposition and positive emotions in prompting the social transmission of debate parody. Postman, — Postman, N. Amusing ourselves to death: public discourse in the age of show business. NY: Penguin Books: Reincheld, — Reincheld, A. Journalism History. Saturday…, — Saturday Night Live, series — Wiley-Blackwell: Scacco et al. When the President Tweets: Exploring the normative tensions of contemporary presidential communication.
Humour and anthropology. Wiedlack, — Wiedlack, K. Feminist Media Studies. NY: Oxford University Press: These topics have become more acute and sensitive in some relevant contexts. First, all over the world, and in Europe in particular, the contradictions between the traditional mission of universities as keepers of spiritual values and the concepts of entrepreneurial university have intensified. Second, the humanitarian traditions of higher education are under pressure from the rapid expansion of digital technologies.
Journalism education in Russia feels the influence of these contradictory contexts in full measure. In order to clarify the attitude of the teaching community to the changes taking place in this regard, the authors of the article conducted an expert interview with the heads of educational departments and professors from different regions of the country. This is the methodological basis of the article. Full videos of the conversations are presented on the special page of the research project "Theoretical and Pedagogical Schools of Journalism in Russia" , part of which were expert interviews.
The study confirmed the hypothesis that Russian journalism teachers are committed to humanitarian values and educational traditions, although they are not opposed to technological and methodological innovations. Introduction Under the influence of the economy globalization and increasing global competition, universities are strengthening their commercial activity and significantly changing the strategic guidelines of their activities.
These metamorphoses cause different reactions in the pedagogical community, including far from approval. In addition, the second approach, according to its adherents, is organically correlated with the mission of the university as a social institution and with the protection of national cultural priorities. It is no coincidence that "recently in Europe, issues of maintaining the national and cultural characteristics of European values and education systems have come to the fore According to sociological researches, in Russia, the majority of teachers do not accept the reform of universities based on entrepreneurial values and remain committed to academic values Mkrtychyan, Petrova, Disagreements and collisions of this kind can no longer be considered as peripheral phenomena or single episodes, they have moved to the level of systemic contradictions.
The concept of humanitarian resistance has entered the pedagogical science, that is resistance to the reduction of the humanitarian component in education in favor of technologization and client- oriented relations Murzina, Education in the pandemic context has strengthened such sentiments among teachers, they began to perceive digitalization "not so much as technological modernization and the implementation of new carriers of educational information, but as a process threatening people and society In turn, the humanitarian guidelines of journalistic education also become the subject of discussion in publications.
Teachers pay attention to the fact that the previous state standard in this area assumed, first of all, humanitarian education and acceptance of the values of a socially significant creative profession. However, at present, journalism in the official list of specialties has moved from the group of "Humanities" to "Social Sciences" and took a place side by side with psychology, economics and management, sociology and social work, law, etc.
Myasnikova, Changing the status inevitably entails corresponding shifts in the content and organization of the educational process. This means that there may be some responses from teachers both to the increasing technological modernization of education, and to decreasing the level of humanitarian culture of future journalists. Approving reactions will contribute to transformations, while a critical attitude towards them will become a factor of inhibition. The purpose of this article is to find out the attitude of journalism teachers to humanitarian traditions and values in professional education and to their possible devaluation.
Materials and methods The main method to achieve this goal was expert interviews with heads of educational organizations and well-known mentors from different cities and universities of Russia. This series of interviews covers a rather wide range of issues, of which the article presents only one thematic segment that corresponds to its topic.
For better understanding the context in which the conversation with experts was hold, we should clarify that it was an integral part of the comprehensive research project "Theoretical and Pedagogical Schools of Journalism in Russia" The initiator and intellectual and methodological center of the work was the Department of the Theory of Journalism and Mass Communications of St.
Petersburg State University, but representatives of a number of other departments and universities of Russia and abroad are involved in the collection and interpreting of materials. The project is aimed at solving the following tasks: a to reconstruct the process of forming Russian theoretical and pedagogical schools of journalism; b to identify their peculiar qualitative characteristics and achievements that can be considered as national cultural advantages; c to use and develop methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis of schools; d to present a series of professional and creative portraits of their outstanding representatives; e to determine the main trends in the development of this branch of cognitive and educational activities.
The high competence of the interlocutors makes it possible to overcome the methodological disadvantage, which British scholar Laurence Solkin revealed in published contributions on journalism education: very few authors draw on any recognized educational resources or research. Despite extensive references to professionalisation in the literature, the works reviewed contain very few references to professional or experiential learning Solkin, Such arbitrary judgments cannot be considered trustworthy, while our experts rely on their experience gained over decades of work in journalism schools and freely operate with extensive literature on the issues under discussion.
The structure of the interview includes basic and variable semantic blocks, taking into account the field of activity and individual experience of concreate experts: - conceptual definition, interpretation, specification of concepts ; - informative data on the development of certain schools, names, facts, examples, specifics ; - problematic current state, challenges, prospects. The humanitarian orientations of journalism education were touched upon in different blocks, to a certain extent it was a dominating motive of conversations, since the interlocutors chose this angle of view when discussing these or that aspects of the journalism schools' activities.
Discussion Of course, the problems of humanitarization of journalism schools cannot be considered apart from the contexts in which the press itself and education exist. The broadest among them and at the same time opposing each other are the contexts of the global unification and preservation of national and cultural identity. It can be assumed that journalistic education is experiencing a powerful and multidirectional influence of both trends. In this light, it becomes clear the desire to fix its special features in certain regions against the global background.
Large-scale projects covering the state of university journalism schools on a global level Goodman, Steyn, , in various parts of the world, for example, in Europe Terzis, and Asia Media Asia, , in separate countries, for example, in Canada Allen et al. On the other hand, attempts are being made to systematize various materials and identify typical models. So, according to Laurence Solkin, three approaches to journalistic education are reflected in the literature: 1 The standard model — A single unitary model of journalism as professional practice underpinned by a stable democratic free market system; 2 Derivatives of the standard model J.
In all likelihood, the attitude to the humanitarian orientations of education will differ in accordance with the declared and implemented model. Moreover, the differences themselves can be identified precisely by the parameter of humanitarization. Turning to the Soviet decades since journalism education was formed at a stable level during this period of history , it is easy to see that it was not the free market system which created ideological and semantic dominants in the domestic higher school.
Let's take into account that knowledge of the society and its culture is called in the first place. The conclusion follows that the Russian school of journalism cannot be related to the standard unitary model; rather, its place is among the so-called radical models that serve many certain communities.
Of course, it would be a wrong and unfair saying that all foreign teachers advocate "pure" professional skills, without components of humanitarian erudition it would also be a mistake to assume that there are no supporters of "pure" labour technologies among Russian teachers. However, the ideas of our Russian colleagues extend far beyond the framework of democracy and social conjuncture, their reflections are being built on a broad worldview base and humanitarian priorities of the profession.
It is characteristic, for example, that these motives are clearly heard when discussing pedagogical strategies: "The education of future professional journalists on the samples of a great worldview style, anthropocosmism, is seen as a promising educational strategy" Poelueva et al. Thus, there are grounds for the hypothesis that expert interviews will express commitment to humanitarian orientations as an integral characteristic of the national school of journalism.
Confirmation of this hypothesis and after that active popularization of the Russian pedagogical ideology and experience can be of considerable importance for partnership interaction with foreign universities. Until now, it has been hindered by the stereotypical representations and prejudices inherent in Western analysts. Results The experts' sayings about the humanitarian components of education are grouped into three thematic blocks, relating to main aspects of the educational process: organizational and methodological, communicative, and professionally applied.
In this order, they will be presented below. At the organizational and methodological level, humanitarian priorities are manifested in the content and methods of teaching. Experts see journalist primarily in the roles of analyst, critic, and a thoughtful observer of the processes taking place in the world around him. In their opinion, this is a typical order for a university graduate. With the whole complex of problems, traditions, and cultural, economic, ethnolinguistic features of its development.
Not every routine reporter's work needs such a qualification, but nevertheless, mental algorithms should be embedded in every person. And this is the humanitarian side of education, even the philosophical one. As a result, widely educated people appear who can't write carelessly, for it is not interesting for them to write this way. An educated person has a deeper and more diverse understanding of life. It is indicative that as a result, discourses about journalism and the university are actually closing in.
We ask, what do you need? They say: students should to be educated. As to the formats, they say, we will teach them in one or two months, and our own formats. One of the main skills is a competent, expressive presentation of non-banal thoughts about what is happening around.
Experts on principle reasons reject disciplinary isolation and back up a broad interdisciplinary partnership. Our school of St. Petersburg University is arranged in such a way that the best lecturers teach us literature — Russian and foreign, the best lecturers come from other faculties to teach courses in history, philosophy, etc. Bringing tutors of high university proficiency and intelligence to the journalists' audience is a conceptual solution.
First of all, for literary courses, including the history of Russian and foreign literature, as well as philosophical knowledge, ethics, and aesthetics. Unfortunately, this content is often withdrawn from education today. For example, we have a good department of stylistics and literary editing, we pay a lot of attention to literature.
Not only because we ourselves grew out of the philological faculty and many of us became candidates and doctors of philology. But also, because, after all, the word is the main thing in journalism. This means not only and not so much official affiliation, but mainly personal involvement in a stable tradition and way of activity.
Of course, the main thing here is the social responsibility of Russian journalism and its inclusion in the global context. I think that these are the distinctive features of the school to which I belong and which I am trying to develop, including the younger generation in it.
At the communicative level, interpersonal communication and the leading role of the individual in educational practice come to the fore. All the experts were willingly and in detail talking about the contribution to the education of its initiators, the leaders of pedagogical schools. The pedagogical community even associates the names of universities with the certain names of outstanding scientists and heads of faculties and departments.
But there is always a founder of a school who creates the mission, lays down certain values that are not subject to time, who cements this school with his works, textbooks or research articles and his personality. So that people define in such words: 'Oh, is this a place where such and such persons work?
In St. Petersburg, Sidorov develops axiology, he has united people around him, arranges collections of articles and round tables; the school of text is represented by Misonzhnikov, Duskaeva, Konkov. In Rostov, Akopov and others developed a mass media typology, especially magazines. There are several directions on the Urals, for example, sociology, which was started by Sesyunin, supported by Lozovsky and Oleshko.
Voronezh has always been known due to studies in publisism, there is a powerful school of Kroichik here, which was not in any other university. In other words, belonging to a mature theoretical and pedagogical school is beneficial in itself.
But since the interview concerns more education than academic research, the participants emphasize the importance of interpersonal communication for the professional formation of a graduate. On the one hand, the experience of masters, often unique, is transmitted through regular contacts. This is the ABC. He has no journalism education, but he has been in journalism for twenty-five years, and worked in major media.
He can tell much more about the profession than any theorist and methodologist who has thoroughly studied how to teach journalism. For us, such people are just worth their weight in gold. But today, individual work stands not even on the third plan, but further on.
We accept a large number of students, a big part of them is not motivated to study. This is happening simultaneously with the reduction of the staff. There is less and less time for individual work. Apparently, distance learning is both useful and necessary as an additional tool, especially if we are talking about some kind of courses that cannot be studied in any other way. But distance cannot be a substitute for direct communication. Particularly when it comes to journalistic education.
But despite this, students are still striving for a real place, for real teachers, not virtual ones. They strive for communication. The experience of teaching in self-isolation has shown this once again. As active actors in the production process and heads of structural departments of universities, they realistically assess and accept the need for changes, including personnel renewal.
I am beginning to understand and agree with this idea. Students are attentive to and interested in people who are close in age, but experienced in the profession. It is important to be ready to keep up with the times. There are many experienced journalists of the old formation who find no strength to step over their old habits and learn to work using new tools.
At first, they complain that they have no skills. We say: don't be afraid, we are very interested, it's important what you do. And gradually, our specialists, who were afraid to speak a year and a half ago, are starting to teach not only here, but also at other venues.
As expected, questions about the role of the individual and the mutual influence of people in the educational process constitute a large and very problematic section of the discourse on humanitarian orientations in the university training of journalists. It is noteworthy that none of the experts supported the idea of educational technologies without people or the priority of online learning over personal communication.
At the professional-applied professional-ideological level, the understanding of journalism as a humanitarian activity is placed in the center of attention, which in this case means working in contact with people and for people, carrying knowledge about people, etc. Vocational education is also oriented accordingly to preserve and transmit the basic values of the profession.
Detailed declarations of this kind are found in the interviews texts. There should be a lot of psychology in journalism now. So that the priority is not what I will say, but what I will hear in all these signs, events in the world and in society, and I will be able to convey it correctly, without misinforming the audience. In this regard, some of the interlocutors point to the national and cultural originality of Russian journalism.
Such an interesting phenomenon as the combination of a journalist, a citizen and an activist in one person is typical only for Russia, it seems to me. European journalists describe civil activity, civil practices of participation, but they are not included in them themselves. Our journalists themselves begin to organize some kind of separate garbage collection or the green movement, or get involved in some feminist discourses. However, it is important to see the deontological basis of the expert's position: he makes a choice in favor of the high purpose of the profession and denies its prosaic interpretation.
The denial concerns both the conjunctural requests of the industry "The labor market is beginning to demand: we need the identical specialists with the identical set of technological skills, the identical understanding of their duties for those editorial offices that earn money" , and the organization of the educational process "We are more and more aware of a certain limitation of the practice-oriented approach in those areas of activity that are related to the functioning of society and that are associated with the impact on public consciousness".
In practical terms, experts are concerned about destruction of the fundamental training, the simplification and unification of curricula, the fascination with technology, as well as the commercialization and pragmatization of education. I do not know how to teach in these conditions. We must close our eyes to the fact that there is a swamp.
And the function of upbringing goes away completely. The unification that exists in humanitarian university education is, you know, just the death of education completely. And it turned out that all general cultural competencies were replaced by universal competencies.
The latter no longer presuppose the formation of solid knowledge in the sciences — philosophy, sociology, economics — as it was being done before. Conclusion The performed research confirms the hypothesis about the commitment of representatives of various educational institutions to the humanitarian orientations, which are characteristic for the Russian educational tradition and the professional values of domestic journalism.
To experts, in the context of continuing changes in the media sphere, these orientations seem to be an absolute constant. They determine the content basis of education and help us to preserve the semantic core of the profession, which is realized through the prism of social responsibility and humanitarian mission. Experts point out that fundamental education and extensive humanitarian training extend the graduates' opportunities to find and acquire various options for professional self-realization.
However, this basic value of Russian journalism schools may conflict with the current needs of the media market and the expansion of technological innovations. The interview participants attach great importance to the personality of the teacher and emphasize the individual nature of pedagogical work in teaching journalism.
In addition, according to their estimates, problem-thematic areas have priority in the activities of journalism schools, while instrumental skills are mandatory, but applied, as they are subject to market changes, unlike the social purpose and professional values of journalism. Experts advocate the preservation of the humanitarian basis of journalism education. In particular, they critically assess the unification of graduates' competencies, excessive passion for technology, shifting emphasis to practice-oriented training, etc.
Together, these trends pose a threat not only to the continuity in the development of pedagogical schools in their traditional for Russia sense, but also to the effective functioning of journalism as a social institution. References Allen et al. Toward New directions in journalism education. Toronto: Ryerson Journalism Research Centre. Journalism education in Russia: Contemporary trends in a historical context.
Journal of Global Mass Communication. Berezhnaya, — Berezhnaya, M. Sotsial'naya zhurnalistika kak problemno- tematicheskoe napravlenie v podgotovke zhurnalistov [Social journalism as a problem-thematic direction in the training of journalists]. In Blokhin, I. Ocherki Peterburgskoi shkoly zhurnalistiki. Petersburg: Peterburgskaya nauchno-pedagogicheskaya shkola zhurnalistiki: parametry i pokazateli analiza [Petersburg scientific and pedagogical school of journalism: parameters and indicators of analysis].
Vek informatsii. Global journalism education in the 21st Century: Challenges and innovations. Josephi, — Josephi, B. Journalism education. In Wahl-Jorgensen, K. The handbook of journalism studies. Khubetcova, — Khubetcova, Z. Nauchno-obrazovatel'nye shkoly zhurnalistiki stran blizhnego zarubezh'ya: reprezentatsiya i aprobatsiya metodiki analiza na materialakh Belarusi, Kazakhstana i Ukrainy [Theoretical and pedagogical journalism schools in post-soviet states: Representation and test methodology of analysis on the materials of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Ukraine ].
Vestnik Volzhskogo universiteta imeni V. Nauchno-pedagogicheskie shkoly zhurnalistiki v Rossii [Theoretical and pedagogical schools of journalism in Russia]. Special Issue. Status and Relevance of Journalism Education in Asia Murzina, — Murzina, I. Gumanitarnoe soprotivlenie v usloviyakh tsifrovizatsii obrazovaniya [Humanitarian resistance in the context of digitalisation of education]. Obrazovanie i nauka. Professional'naya kul'tura zhurnalista v usloviyakh mediatransformatsii [Professional culture of a journalist in the conditions of media transformations].
In defence of European universities: Scholars and activists, unite! In Peja, L. Current perspectives on communication and media research. Bremen: Editions Lumiere: Poelueva et al. In Kokhanaya, O. Moscow: Predprinimatel'skii universitet: sushchnost' i priznaki [Entrepreneurial university: Main points and features]. Vestnik Tambovskogo universiteta. Seriya: Gumanitarnye nauki. Educating for journalism: The professionalism of scholarship. Journalism Studies. Solkin, — Solkin, L. Journalism education in the 21st Century: A thematic analysis of the research literature.
European journalism education. Vartanova, — Vartanova, E. Journalism education in Russia: Three main pillars. In Vartanova, E. Zhurnalistskoe obrazovanie bez granits. The article presents the characteristics of methodological materials on the formation of the competence of the media text author working with the territory's media image used in the ours of training "Journalism", "Advertising and Public Relations" — the bachelor's degree, the master's degree.
Cognitive means of a media text addressed to the sociocode of culture have been highlighted. Using them, the textured material is percepted and processed in modeling the media image of a country or a region. Active and interactive teaching methods focused on reflection and conscious use of these tools in the media text author's creative activity have been structured.
The authors propose several tasks for active, problem-based learning and articulate the culturological model of education in forming professional competencies in modeling a media image, which replenishes the educational environment with sociocultural meanings characteristic of a person's territory.
Keywords: value-semantic component of modeling the media image of the territory, teaching methods, cultural memory, national picture of the world, conceptual modeling, media culture. Introduction The study is relevant due to the significant role of modern media in shaping the image of a specific territory in the mass consciousness, on which economic, political and social relations in society directly depend. Nevertheless, there are clearly not enough methodological materials on this issue; there are basically no studies on specific work with the media image within the framework of the media text.
Materials and methods The study uses many interdisciplinary methods: the systematic and pragmatist communicative method and the axiological approach are focused on the use of scientific material in the classroom as a means of effective socialization and interpersonal, as well as mass communication of future professionals. The process of classroom and independent work with these established mental representations of Russia is focused on students discovering the correlation of primordial meanings and their transformation in the mass media discourse.
A survey of active journalists from different communication channels made it possible to identify the study's relevance and the need for pedagogical work aimed at mastering the cognitive and linguistic tools for modeling the media image of territory. The study uses many interdisciplinary methods: systemic pragmatic communication method and axiological approach are focused on the use of scientific material in the classroom as a means of effective socialization and interpersonal, as well as mass communication of future specialists.
A survey of active journalists from different communication channels revealed the relevance of the study and the need for pedagogical work aimed at mastering cognitive and linguistic tools for modeling the media image of a territory. The conceptual modeling method allows us to consider the media image model as an ideal structure that includes the property of its elements rationality and feelings, cognition and actions and their cause-and-effect relationships Erofeeva, The model's effectiveness is associated with its basic cultural component, the presence of elements of the prototext — the original text that condenses the cultural memory of a person.
In this context, we use linguoculturological analysis, which establishes a close relationship between media discourse's cognitive and linguistic tools and the national picture of the author's and the consumer's world. The list of pedagogical tools includes a systematic and pragmatist communicative method focused on using scientific material as a means of socialization and interpersonal and mass communication of future professionals.
The axiological approach is also relevant in the research context, which is based on an orientation towards the system of social and pedagogical values in the implementation of interactive technologies in the learning process. We also focus on the value of human life, on the approval of the ethical and axiological content of work in the mass media. The practice-oriented approach used is aimed at forming professional competencies in modeling the media image of territory in the space of the media text within the framework of educational activities.
The study's relevance and the need for the stated topic are based on a survey of current journalists from various communication channels. Discussion Modern higher education and new standards for training professionals in the field of media are directly focused on forming competencies that allow a specialist to solve a certain class of professional problems. The structure of competencies includes knowledge, abilities, skills, and certain models of behavior. In the information society, competencies associated with the ability to construct a certain image of particular territory are especially in demand.
Scientists draw attention to the need for a purposeful and well-thought-out policy of the federal and regional authorities to form a strong brand of territory Kulibanova, Teor: Accordingly, the technology of modeling the necessary media image is a matter of state priorities.
But, unfortunately, from the point of view of stages, structure, and tools of work, this area of activity within the framework of a specific text is poorly represented in the scientific literature. It is practically not worked out in the pedagogy of higher education. Nevertheless, in working with different textures, the creator of the media text — a journalist or a specialist in advertising and public relations — immanently or deliberately creates an image of territory. Actors of information flows are guided by corporate goals, by factors of interest of the audience, by rating approaches.
But the demanded and, accordingly, dominant-negative, aggressive, or entertaining content constructs a destructive image of territory of residence. Scientists consider in detail the methods and mechanisms of branding due to the socio-economic and socio-cultural development of the region Gridnev, ; Lantsevskaya, ; Malysheva, Yezhova, , etc. Beyond the field of our attention in this material, there are theoretical bases of territory branding, technology development strategy of territory brand, brand monitoring methods, and evaluation of its effectiveness.
We are primarily interested in the cognitive and linguistic tools of the media text, which allows us to represent local identity and present it in certain semantic frameworks, as well as in bright and interconnected images that are attractive to the audience. We take into account the assertion of the researcher Yu. Dracheva about the phenomenon of the media image, which functions in mass communication as already existing representations, part of the collective consciousness and "a mental image represented in media texts as a fragment of the information media picture of the world.
In mass communication, media images are understood as the reflection of objectively existing reality in the media, the "image of the social world formed by the media" Lantsevskaya, 98; Marushchak, , the sum of collective ideas about a fragment of reality," the result of reflecting the "essential characteristics of the state" Galinskaya, ; Gosteva, , Lantsevskaia, According to the latest generation standards approved by the Ministry of Education of Russia for the enlarged group of majors Lecture and practical courses on the branding of territories work out these competencies in the narrowly focused field of the theory of branding, technologies for its creation, further management, and promotion, emphasizing the importance for the economy and social stability in a region or a country.
As a rule, interesting cases of existing global or urban, regional, tourism brands are considered; strategies and stages of territorial branding, possible development, various integrations, and rebranding are systematized. We propose to include an additional area of creative work of the author of a media text on modeling a competitive and attractive media image of territory using cognitive and linguistic tools.
On the one hand, the problem of branding and image of territories has become relevant in Russia relatively recently; on the other hand, the abundance of scientific materials on this topic should be noted. The basics of branding, innovative tools for its implementation are presented in the works of foreign Anholt, ; Asplund et al. Often content elements of other types of branding, for example, corporate one, are projected into territorial brand management.
According to S. Zenker and E. The final goal of territorial branding is to form a generally positive impression of the region as the most preferred place for life in its various manifestations: rest, work, education, housing, medicine, industry, investment and innovation, targeted government programs, etc.
The set of dominant associations and meanings in the information field also creates a certain media image of the territory. The media image is interpreted as "an impression made up of the totality of references to the features and events of such territory" Lantsevskaya, This category is presented in various ways in the scientific discourse. On the one hand, the media image is interpreted as a set of emotional and rational representations based on information received from the media Maruschak, One cannot but take into account the fact that the media image is built into the two-sided process of its creation in the space of the text by the communicator and the perception of this text by the consumer.
The construction of a media text can be spontaneous and chaotic Galinskaya, 91 , but it is also possible to purposefully model it in the right way, with emphasis on the necessary meanings that originate in the symbolic realities of culture, which will be the subject of our analysis. In science, the internal image, which absorbs ideas about oneself and the place of direct residence, and the external image, which is created outside the region and reflects the thoughts of others about us, are considered Kovach, The resources of the media image are analyzed by scientists using a different categorical base.
So, philologists pay attention to linguistic, connotative, and expressive-evaluative means of verbalizing a media image Galinskaya, ; Erofeeva, ; Skidan, ; Toropova, Political scientists formulate the social and ideological tasks of the media image Shevtsova, ; Shmeleva, Kaminchenko, The image of territory, recorded in the media, launches the mechanism of social identification that is extremely necessary for a person.
That person begins to feel his or her belonging to certain geography of residence. His or her urgent social need for a collective value related to the place of life is implemented. The territory's image is a kind of axiological model of social consciousness; it is the accessible concepts and judgments of members of society about the national and state community Semenenko, 6. The parameters of the territory's identity include the attributes of uniqueness, loyalty to the place, cohesion of residents, the ideological and practical potential of identity.
In the situation of an acute geopolitical information war between Russia and the West, the topic of mass identity, woven from symbolic and semantic content and reflecting the specific cultural characteristics of society, becomes especially relevant Klaudou, ; Yanglyaeva, ; Zimmerbauer The process of saturating the media image with fragments of the national picture of the world is not only a strategic task and a way of protection from outside influences but also an opportunity to preserve one's identity, "a special timbre in the symphonic orchestra of mankind" Gachev, Within the framework of current research in cognitive linguistics Tipton, , Wolff- Michael, , the linguistic personality of the author of a media product is the bearer of cultural- linguistic and communicative-pragmatist values characteristic of a particular society, respectively the author in the process of constructing a media text represents the primordial worldview models through a set of cognitive means.
Perceiving and processing the texture, the linguistic personality appeals not so much to the individual irrationality as to the values of the culture in which the person was born and raised. Moreover, the accentuation of the primordial sociocode guarantees the target audience's effective and congruent perception of the text — the bearer of an identical picture of the world.
It is no coincidence that Y. Borev designates the interpreter of the text as "a kind of cultural media" Borev, In our teaching activities, we rely on these scientific facts. Training of future professionals in the field of mass media, aimed at using cognitive and linguistic means of modeling a media image, is a rather complex and multi-vector task, including not only the theory of cognitive linguistics and psychology of mass media but also a practice-oriented cycle for mastering specific media text technologies.
A complex front of work is possible only when using active teaching methods when a student is not only a listener and analyst but an active participant in the process of constructing a media text. Activity learning implies not so much understanding and assimilation of principles and approaches as applying knowledge in practice.
This topic becomes the subject of consideration in the studies of I. Shumov, I. Anashkin, E. Zarukin, N. Loginov, M. Novik, etc. Researcher E. Zarukina refers to active teaching methods as methods with a high degree of involvement of students in the educational process, which makes it possible to awaken cognitive and creative activity in solving the assigned tasks.
The features of active teaching methods are purposeful activation of thinking, independent creative development of solutions, an increased degree of motivation and emotionality of trainees, constant interaction of subjects of educational activity, free exchange of views on ways to solve problems Zarukina et al. So, O. Front Matter Pages i-xiv. Lisetski, Olga V. Vashchenko, Natalia A. Kasian, Liliia V. Sviechnikova Pages Tovkach, S. Chernyshuk, B. Lev Pages Pages Heyn, V. Garamus, Anja Steffen-Heins, K.
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