Anbazhahan , Sudabathula Sravan Kumar , M. Praveen Kalkundri , Dr. Hansraj Guhilot , Kalkundri Ravi. Analyzing the Total Household data of different states in India based on Census and evaluating their relative performance using Machine Learning. Movie Recommender System Using sentiment Analysis. Online Proctoring System for Higher Education. Iraqi e-learning Adoption and Iraqi e-Government Weakness. Jaswant Singh , S. Singh , K. Hanin Hamjah, S. Rosmawati Mohamad Rasit , Ab.
Rahman, Z. Zaizul Ab. Rahman ,Kashim, M. Izhar Arif Mohd. Kashim , Samsudin, MA. Venkat Subbarao. Manchala, Dr. E, Ph. Azral-Ismawy, P. Ridzuan, Shariff Halim, C. Ruhizan Mohammad Yassin , Prof Dr. Norasmah Othman. Ridzuana , N. SS Garut. Syaeful Bakhri. Rajeswari Nakka, Dr. Prasad, R. Kiran Kumar. Imran Basha , Dr. Subangini Devi , Dr. Murugesan , Dr. Himani Singh Rana , Dr.
Koushik Chakraborty , Hari Babu Pasupuleti. Praveen Kumar, Dr. Sreenu Ponnada, K. Bhargav, Dr. Raja Koti. Jayson John J. Quintanilla, Alain B. Lajo, Gershom A. Defe, Ace Zander C. Francis A. Alfaro, Jan Eilbert L. Lee, Wellanie M. Lirio, Gary Antonio C. Lexis Mari P. Galang, Juliana Rose S. Rosales, Romnick M. Ureta, Gary Antonio C. Maxine Rhea S. Monte , Mark Jonan C. Galicia, Viviene Grace F. Fajardo , Romnick M. Study on behaviour of uniaxial column bonded with basalt FRP wraps.
Sivakumar, Dr. B, Dr. Sreehari, Dr. Srinath, Priyadharshni Varma. M, Niranjan Logeswaran. Design Of Mud Concrete. Nanoparticles and their application as antibacterial tool. Nageswara Rao, M. Narayana, KVB. Ganesh, T. Srinivasa Rao, B. Srinivasa Kumar. Adaptability of Machine Learning in Cryptography. Al-Abd , Zulhabri Othman. Seung Bin Textil. Srikandi, Bangka, Indonesia. Alvii T. Dudih Sugiharto. Cash Waqf. P Febrilita, Alief Kuntoro Hadi.
Lv4 Method at PT. Investigating Application for Presentation in Learning Activities. Sukenda, S. Zukhruf S. Financial Performance Growth and Bond Rating. The Affecting Factors of Banking Profitability. Wedi Rusmawan Kusumah.
Andhika Firdaus R. Artarina D. G, Raden Muhammad Lutfhi H. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung. Ayuningtyas Y. The Industrial Revolution 4. XY in Bandung Regency Area. Kasmuli Herman, Meita Lukitawati Sutjana. Maruichi Indonesia. Dwiki Nugraha, M. Study of the influence of the biological product Kuprumhit, produced on the basis of technological regulations, on the growth and development of wheat plants.
Abdurasulov A. Personality of Sharof Rashidov in contemporaries memory. Museum excursions as an innovative approach in continuous education of students. Nasriddinov K. Boymuratov, U. Abdurakhmanov, G. Yurkov , M. Zakhidova, D. Begmatova, Sh. Sodikova, M. Karaboyeva, N. Abdullayev, R. Development of the tourism and recreation complex as an effective lever for the restoration of the tourism sector in Uzbekistan after the pandemic.
Semantical Features Of Folklore Samples. Gender Differences In Medical Euphemism. Vaibhav V. Kulkarni, Prof. Prafulla C. An Analysis of the Application of Phillips Curve. Electronic Music Composition System based on Midi. Comparison of Asymmetric Product Quality: Exports vs. Domestic Exports. Distributed Generation Planning A Review. Piyush Kumar Yadav, Saurabh V.
Kumar, Dr. Rajnish Bhasker, Satyam Kumar Upadhyay. Amrapali Jambhulkar, Shrikant G. Borkar, Prof. Sigamani Panneer, Dr. Avantika Shukla. Alaa M. Ali , Ali H. Salim , Basheer A. Mamasoliev, B. Nazarov, Ziyadullo N. Uma Mahesh Babu , Dr. Giri Babu , Dr. Vani, C. Keerthi Latha , G. Aparna , Dr. Keiza Joseph , Mr. Shaidenko, E. Orekhova, I. Danilova, S. A desirable surface roughness property at the liner-residual limb interface can either increase or decrease friction, improve wear, and the surfaces may improve heat conductivity Failure to do so can lead to a variety of clinical issues and skin problems such as blister, friction, cyst, dermatitis, and skin lesion 11 , 12 , 13 , One of the common liner materials that have been in use since the s is the dense closed-cell foam liner The most popular foam liner is the Pe-Lite liner system.
It is made from medium-density polyethylene foam. The use of polyethylene is ubiquitous because it is used in a lot of everyday items. The physical properties of polyethylene can be determined by multiple combinations of densities and different commoners, making the material utilizable in a wide range of applications, including socket liners The material is durable and cheaper than the state-of-the-art elastomeric gel liners During the process of socket fabrication, the foam material undergoes a thermoforming process then is quickly fitted to follow the shape of the socket 18 , There are various patents and technologies developed to ensure a reliable prosthetic liner-skin interface material is available 20 , To cater to the needs of amputees, prosthetists, researchers and manufacturers have created a range of different liner materials with different chemical compositions, geometry and mechanical properties to suit amputees individually Besides, surface roughness analysis of the Pe-Lite liner would allow researchers to design a reliable socket with the desired surface roughness.
Surprisingly, there is a lack of study on different surface roughness from milling processes at socket-residual limb interface. The data used in this study was collected from a year-old female amputee with a transtibial left amputation due to a diabetic ulcer. The participant underwent thorough briefing sessions and was well informed on the consent related to the study.
The participant has been using a patellar tendon bearing socket PTB with Pe-Lite liner for the past two years. Once the 3D image of the residual limb was obtained, A CAD software called Bioshape was used to rectify the 3D images before the creation of positive models.
However, no modification or rectification process was done on the images as it was not required for this study. An observation was made by comparing the machined surfaces with a liner obtained from a conventionally made socket. Biomill CNC milling is a vertically oriented milling system that created the final 3D transtibial model or the positive models by carving a polyurethane foam. The multi-axis system enables the machine to have better functionality than the 3-axis milling system and can offer a more complex operation.
Each axis travelled differently during the milling process. The X and Y-axis are responsible for the horizontal movement, Z-axis involved in vertical, and the additional T-axis allowed movement on the vertical plane. Another advantage of the multiple axes configuration system is that it permits optimization of the cutting time. The system did this by using a high-speed spindle system, and the foam was cut according to the 3D model set by Bioshape CAD software.
This was achieved because Biomill acquired a rapid transverse speed rate up to inches per minute IPM or 0. Biomill has options of choosing different types of milling process. There were four modes of finishing and the differences were identified by the distance between the passes of the spindle as it cuts. However, this study utilized all four different finishes and produced one positive models for each surface. All machined polyurethane surfaces were produced at the same spindle speed and executed with the same cutting tool a custom 0.
The time it took to execute each mode of printing depended on the number of passes, which increased in numbers for less rough surface. So once the type of finish was selected, the correct file to be cut was loaded to the Biomill processing system. The system then suggested a default plug or foam type for the milling process BK-2 plug type. The plug fixture was then mounted onto the turntable with a mandrel fitted securely into the base of the polyurethane plug.
The milling process started as soon as the spindle was enabled. Biosculptor adopted a staggered cutting option where the machine performed several undefined cuts until the required depth of the model was reached. This method was applied to prevent excessive tool bits, to prevent wear on the z axis of the spindle bearings assembly and ultimately to produce smoother surface.
Once finished, the Pe-Lite polyethylene liners were then thermoformed over the positive models and wrapped tightly with cling films to ensure that the surface of the moulds were transferred directly to the Pe-Lite liners. These Pe-Lite liners were then used to test the surface roughness.
A common method to measure surface roughness is by using a profilometer The Pe-Lite samples were evaluated for surface roughness using a table-top contact profilometer device Mitutoyo SurfTest SJ series 27 , The profilometer was fitted with a retractable probe with a diamond tip stylus. Five to six benchmark samples were made for each surface, and twenty trials were carried out. The direction of the surface profiles measurements was perpendicular to the direction of the tool.
The topographical analysis was carried using the profilometer which was connected to a communication software program that allowed an instant inspection to be recorded and automatically generated the 2D analysis graphs. From the twenty trials, twelve sets of surface roughness profiles were chosen to represent each surface.
Three common roughness parameters, average surface roughness Ra , root mean square roughness Rq , and ten-point mean roughness Rz were selected. Once the analysis was completed, a comparison of surface roughness analysis of the four surface samples against the surface of a Pe-Lite liner from a conventional socket was carried out. Diagram of the process of obtaining the four different types of surfaces of the Pe-Lite to be tested for surface roughness test.
To report the statistical measurement of validity, the twelve samples were used to provide the appropriate statistical measurement in the form of standard deviation SD and standard error of means SEM. The mean values also reported for each surface parameter. The SEM values were calculated via Eq. The calculation of SEM provides a measurement of the accuracy within a sample mean distribution using values of SD. A small standard error indicates a lesser spread of the sample's mean distribution thus, the sample's mean is more likely to be closer to the population mean 29 , Lastly, to obtain the comparison data, the calculations were conducted for all three surface roughness parameters of the liners of machined sockets and the surface roughness of liner from conventional socket.
Several parameters are crucial during the machining process, especially to improved surface quality or optimization. The process of producing the four positive models with different degrees of surface roughness were influenced by various factors such as the selected speed, feed rate, tool life, depth of cut and cutting temperature. Multiple studies looked at optimizing these various input factors to yield minimum total production cost 31 , Examination on the spindle speed resulted in a significant impact on the Ra, Rq and Rz values.
A study on lowering the spindle speed caused variations on these surface roughness values Another study also indicated that spindle speed played a major factor in surface roughness properties As the spindle speed was the constant factor in this study, other parameters were automatically adjusted accordingly based on the surface roughness, selected as shown in Table 1.
Three conditions that were significantly varied between the surfaces were the max tool depth, number of passes and the time taken to execute each surface. The duration to execute the milling processes was directly correlated with the number of passes. A constant feed rate with increased max tool depth has resulted in an increased number of passes and a longer time to execute the process.
At inches per minute feed rate with 4 mm tool depth produced the FINE surface, meanwhile, at the same speed with 1. It was also observed that an increment in feed rate caused an increment in the number of passes and time taken to execute a complete process. As a comparison, a high feed rate with a constant max tool depth has reduced the time taken to complete the process and produce a rougher surface. Much of the same outcome was observed with the speed rate.
Nevertheless, the feed rate is shown here as the main factor in establishing the surface roughness of the machined products. Similarly, prior investigations too demonstrated that increasing the feed rate increased the surface roughness which resulted in low quality of surface finished product 35 , 36 , 37 , The present study showed that the degrees and variation of surface roughness are varied as a product of various spindle speeds, feed rate and max tool depth.
An earlier study has stated that good surface roughness can be obtained at high spindle speed, low feed rate and low tool depth The same study also emphasized that feed rate significantly affects surface roughness than other factors. Another study also highlighted that several constraints sets would limit the optimization of the cutting conditions. Examples of such constraints are the limit on the cutting speed to ensure the safety of the machine while in use, the horsepower of the machine and the limit on the tool life The present approached reflected this with the feed rates which were maximized at inches per minute have influenced the surface roughness Consequently, these cutting conditions resulted in different surface roughness which will bear different mechanical properties.
Therefore, further analysis on the surface roughness is required to ensure that the surface roughness obtained from these pre-programmed cutting conditions would produce a suitable surface comparable with conventional socket liners and meet the clinical requirements desired. The cross-section lines of surface roughness profiles were generated for each sample and presented in Fig. One example from each surface was chosen to be analysed, and the Pe-Lite liner from conventional fabrication was used as the reference sample.
The program also conveniently displayed the roughness profiles in a suitable height scale to optimise each result on a line graph. The peaks are noticeably larger for the FINE surface and much smaller for the other three surfaces. The results also observed that the maximum peak and minimum depth for the conventional sample surface are much more uniformed than the machined surface.
Cross-sectional profiles of the conventional Pe-Lite together with four of surfaces machined by Biomill CNC milling machine. There were three amplitude parameters studied to validate and analyse the surface roughness profiles. The arithmetic average height Ra is the most common parameter used for machined surface quality control.
Ra indicates the average deviation of the surface irregularities from the mean line A high-speed cutting process would produce a smoother surface, thus a smaller Ra. As mentioned, the feed rate was highly influenced by Ra followed by tool depth and cutting speed which was evidently shown in this study.
This indicated that a smoother surface was obtained for the FINE surface was related to the higher max tool depth and speed rate as compared to the COARSE surface at a constant feed rate. The conventional sample acquired a Ra value of 8. This indicates that the influence of max tool depth is more significant than feed rate on the type of surface formation.
Based on the topographic method, the results are also intuitively expected for that root mean square roughness Rq values. Rq is significant in describing the surface roughness as it depicts the standard deviation of the surface height distribution by statistical methods Rq is much more sensitive than Ra and provided surface roughness measurement at the microscopic level.
Accordingly, Rq values are often used to compute the skew and kurtosis parameters of surface roughness and are one of the common parameters used in atomic force microscopy study in measuring nanoscale texture of surface roughness As Rq is the representation of the standard deviation of the surface heights, Rq values tend to be greater than Ra, as presented in the result, which agrees with reported results from a prior study Based on these results, the pre-programmed cutting condition has reflected the expected cutting conditions require to produce the required surface.
Rz values give data on the presence of pores or other surface deformities resulting from the milling process and the depth of surface roughness profile irregularities Rz values are more sensitive to the presence of high peaks and deep valleys compared to Ra, which is reflected in the results which showed that the Rz for the FINE surface are the lowest with The SD for most of the samples is in the range 0.
This may be due to the data is greater and more spread out due to the sensitivity of the parameter. As mentioned above, the calculation of SEM provides the measurement of the accuracy and high accuracy is obtained with smaller values of SEM. The differences between the conventional surface with the machined surfaces is shown in a bar graph depicted in Fig. The graph highlighted the comparison of Ra and Rq values of each surface thus allowed direct comparison between the two values.
An overall overview of the results presented in current investigation, the topographical method and the statistical values of this study show that the Pe-Lite liner with STANDARD and FAST surfaces have the most comparable surface roughness characteristics when compared with the liner from conventional fabrication thus validate the significance of the current study.
The four different of surface roughness machined by Biomill CNC milling machine were investigated to compare the surfaces with the liner used in conventional socket. To achieve the comparable surface roughness, the credibility of the surface obtained must be a reliable and suitable to achieve the clinical requirements.
Surface roughness analysis is surely one of the methods that can be considered in achieving the goal. The cutting conditions presented by the system surely matched the degree of surface roughness selected. Further validation with topographical and statistical analysis, the following conclusions are drawn. Cutting conditions especially the feed rate, maximum depth of cut and the speed rate directly influenced the outcome of the surface. Finer surface requires greater number of passes than other rougher surfaces thus which in turn affected the time taken to finish the manufacturing process.
The same pattern of results is measured for both Ra and Rq obtained. These are comparable with the conventional liner. Both Ra and Rq values of the conventional liner Ra of 8. Smith, D. CAS Google Scholar. Fuster-Torres, M. Oral Cir. Google Scholar. Huang, P. An in-process adaptive control of surface roughness in end milling operations. Torres-Moreno, R. A computer-aided socket design procedure for above-knee prostheses. Foort, J.
Experimental fittings of sockets for below-knee amputees using computer aided design and manufacturing techniques. Int 9 1 , 46—47 Otto, J. Dombroski, C. The use of a low cost 3D scanning and printing tool in the manufacture of custom-made foot orthoses: A preliminary study. BMC Res. Notes 7 1 , 1—4 Article Google Scholar. Onwubolu, G. A note on surface roughness prediction model in machining of carbon steel by PVD coated cutting tool. Benardos, P. Predicting surface roughness in machining: A review.
Tools Manuf. Maisuria, M. Li, W. Rehabilitation and adaptation of lower limb skin to friction trauma during friction contact. Wear — , — Meulenbelt, H. Skin problems in lower limb amputees: An overview by case reports. Vanicek, N. Gait patterns in transtibial amputee fallers vs. Gait Posture 29 3 , — Dudek, N. Dermatologic conditions associated with use of a lower-extremity prosthesis. Ali, S. World J. Spalding, M. Handbook of Industrial Polyethylene Technology.
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& Baharudin, B. T. H. T. Analyzing the effect of machining parameters setting to the surface roughness during end milling of CFRP-aluminium. Although news of the Japanese surrender did not reach Medan until August 22,35 reports of the Independence Proclamation had reached Padang and Bukittinggi. The objective of this research is to analyze the effect of machining parameters on the surface quality of CFRP-Aluminium in CNC end milling operation with PCD.