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Kevin Pang was the primary editor of this article and managed its editorial process and peer review in collaboration with the rest of the editorial team. The review history is available as Additional file 6. Qian Qin and Jingyu Fan contributed equally to this work and can interchangeably be ordered as co-first authors. Myles Brown, Clifford A. Shirley Liu. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. QQ implemented the Lisa software and website. JF collected and processed the gene expression data.

All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Correspondence to Jing Zhang , Clifford A. Meyer or X. MB receives sponsored research support from Novartis. All other authors declare that they have no competing interests. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Table S3. Analysis of Lisa predictions of GR and ER regulated genes using data which does not match the specific cell type.

The cell line and cell type of the highest ranked Lisa predicted target TR sample are shown in parentheses in each case. Table S4. Reprints and Permissions. Qin, Q. Genome Biol 21, 32 Download citation. Received : 05 June Accepted : 13 January Published : 07 February Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:.

Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article. Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative. Skip to main content. Search all BMC articles Search. Adams, E. FOXA1 mutations alter pioneering activity, differentiation and prostate cancer phenotypes. Donaghey, J. Genetic determinants and epigenetic effects of pioneer-factor occupancy. Ousset, M. Multipotent and unipotent progenitors contribute to prostate postnatal development.

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Bioinformatics 27 , — Hansen, K. BSmooth: from whole genome bisulfite sequencing reads to differentially methylated regions. Tsherniak, A. Defining a cancer dependency map. Henry, G. A cellular anatomy of the normal adult human prostate and prostatic urethra. Download references. We would like to thank the patients who generously donated tissue that made this research possible. Sylvan C. Berchuck, Mark M. Pomerantz, William C. Hahn, Himisha Beltran, Henry W. The Eli and Edythe L.

Baca, William C. Pomerantz, Henry W. David Y. Rosario I. Corona, Marcos A. Lisha Brown, Holly M. Ilsa M. Department of Biostatistics, Harvard T. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. P analyzed HiChIP data. Korthauer assisted with analysis of WGBS methylation data. S performed gene sequencing of LuCaPs. Correspondence to Matthew L. All other authors declare no competing interests. Peer review information Nature Communications thanks the anonymous reviewer s for their contribution to the peer review of this work.

Reprints and Permissions. Baca, S. Reprogramming of the FOXA1 cistrome in treatment-emergent neuroendocrine prostate cancer. Nat Commun 12, Download citation. Received : 30 September Accepted : 18 February Published : 30 March Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:.

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Download PDF. Subjects Epigenomics Prostate cancer. Abstract Lineage plasticity, the ability of a cell to alter its identity, is an increasingly common mechanism of adaptive resistance to targeted therapy in cancer. Introduction In recent years, potent AR pathway inhibitors have extended the survival of patients with metastatic prostate cancer 1 , 2.

Full size image. Discussion In summary, our work demonstrates that the cis -regulatory landscape of prostate cancer is extensively reprogrammed in NEPC. Alignment and filtering using HiC-Pro We processed paired-end fastq files using HiC-Pro 58 to generate intra- and inter-chromosomal contact maps.

Clique enrichment and clustering analysis Clique enrichment scores CESs for each TF were calculated using clique assignments from Coltron Immunohistochemistry Immunohistochemistry was performed on tissue microarray TMA sections. Analysis of promoter H3K4 and H3K27 trimethylation Refseq gene coordinates hg19 were compiled, selecting the longest isoform where multiple were annotated.

Methylation analysis of normal prostate Whole-genome bisulfite sequencing data from histologically normal prostate tissue were reported previously 68 and processed in our prior report Statistical tests All statistical tests were two-sided except where otherwise indicated. Reporting summary Further information on research design is available in the Nature Research Reporting Summary linked to this article.

Data availability The ChIP-seq data generated in this study sequencing reads in fastq format and normalized read counts in bigwig format have been deposited in GEO under accession number GSE References Scher, H. Google Scholar Bluemn, E. Article Google Scholar Labrecque, M. Article Google Scholar Langmead, B. Article Google Scholar Wang, K. Google Scholar Favero, F. Article Google Scholar Tsherniak, A. Freedman The Eli and Edythe L. Baca View author publications.

View author publications. Ethics declarations Competing interests W. Additional information Peer review information Nature Communications thanks the anonymous reviewer s for their contribution to the peer review of this work. Supplementary information.

Supplementary Information.

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In contrast, TF-bound sequences and cis -regulatory sites are generally much smaller, on the order of 10—20 bp. The relatively large, less defined size of ACRs makes it challenging to identify individual TF-bound sites with certainty and to use them for de novo motif discovery [ 8 , 18 ].

One potential strategy to reduce the size of cross-linked DNA-bound fragments is to utilize the exonuclease activities of MNase or other nucleases during sample treatment prior to sequencing [ 12 , 19 — 25 ]. Here we define a cistrome of the developing maize ear, including hundreds of thousands of putative protein-occupied loci along with hundreds of underlying TF motif families.

To define specific candidate TF-binding sites within accessible chromatin regions, we developed MOA-seq to capture the putative footprints of native DNA-protein interactions. The assay was streamlined to be scalable for high-throughput application and includes a computational pipeline to improve the discovery of putative TF-binding sites as summarized in Fig 1.

The protocol S1 File starts with the preservation of DNA-protein interactions by formaldehyde-crosslinking prior to tissue homogenization and nuclei extraction. To recover these small interaction regions, we took advantage of the endo- and the exo-nuclease activities of MNase, both of which are inhibited at sites of protein-bound DNA. Following sequencing and read mapping to a reference genome summarized in S1 Table , we plotted the density of aligned fragment midpoints to determine MOA footprints MFs, average We then performed de-novo motif discovery Fig 1 , Step 5 to annotate potential cis -elements and compare them to previously defined TF motifs in plants.

In summary, this MOA-seq protocol was designed to repurpose MNase from mapping nucleosomes to mapping smaller particles within ACRs, resulting in a simple, scaleable, and antibody-free approach to globaly identify putative TF-bound cis -elements at relatively high spatial resolution. Flowchart summarizes the five key steps that allow for genome-wide, high-throughput and -resolution transcription factor footprinting and candidate motif discovery.

High salt is included during DNA purification and adapter ligation Step 2 is performed prior to size selection Step 3. These steps serve to increase the recovery of desired small footprint fragments while efficiently eliminating unwanted nucleosome-sized fragments, reducing the required sequencing depth.

After MOA-seq fragments are aligned to the genome Step 4 as illustrated around the na1 gene [ 63 ]. Sequences underlying MOA-footprints were used as input for de novo motif discovery Step 5 , helping to define the maize earshoot cistrome. To assess the reproducibility of the method we analyzed the bioreplicates, summarized in Fig 2. This agreement was quantitatively supported genome-wide by multiple different measures of reproducibility and data quality.

Third, genome-wide coverage correlations were determined because they provide a statistical measure of replicate and control correspondences, independent of peak calling Fig 2C. Based on all of these measures, we concluded that the MOA-seq methodology as performed and described here was decidedly reproducible. For each example, the peaks for the combined datasets Mp and Mfp are shown. B Venn diagram of rep1 and rep2 shows the 1-to-1 quantification of overlapping bases within overlapping peaks.

The total shared base pairs 7. Taken together, these findings suggest a good reproducibility of MOA-seq bioreplicates and consistency with previous reports that the known AT-rich bias of MNase does not substantially bias MNase-based nucleosome footprint assays [ 28 ].

Transcription factors preferentially bind directly upstream and downstream of the transcription start sites TSSs and transcription termination sites TTSs , respectively, while being depleted in protein-coding regions. To test whether MFs showed a similar pattern, we analyzed their genome-wide distribution relative to genes, as shown in Fig 3. Overall this pattern reflects typical TF-binding sites and open chromatin patterns around genes and intergenic enhancer regions. We previously showed that MNase-based differential nuclease sensitivity profiling could be used to map functional regions of the maize genome [ 29 ].

Because both the DNS-seq and MOA-seq make use of light-digest MNase fragments, albeit in different ways, to define accessible chromatin [ 30 ], we expected that the two would mark similar genomic regions. A Genome-wide distribution of MOA-seq footprints relative to genomic annotations. Since MOA-seq and ATAC-seq peaks also share a similar distribution pattern, but deploy different nucleases, we analyzed the number of shared sites between them.

For this, we compared our data with recently published ATAC-seq data from similar-stage earshoots [ 31 , 32 ], the best available dataset for comparison. However, given the differences in peak sizes and numbers, some of these differences could be due to differences in the statistical cutoffs between the segmentation algorithms.

The higher number of peaks called for MOA-seq does not necessarily indicate, therefore, a higher performance. The differences in the distribution of MOA and ATAC-seq peaks were observed as distributed over large regions covering hundreds of thousands of bases as well as at the genic level S4 Fig. The latter is illustrated, e. Given the expectation that MOA-seq identifies regulatory regions enriched for cis -elements, we examined MFs at known and predicted TF-binding sites, as shown in Fig 4.

We first analyzed the MOA-seq average coverage at ChIP-seq sites previously published for the TF encoded by fasciated ear4 fea4 [ 33 ] which is active in both ear and tassel. In addition to TF-binding sites, we examined evolutionarily-defined conserved noncoding sequences CNS which are enriched for cis -regulatory elements [ 35 ]. For each plot, the average peak size was used to define a single metapeak size metapeak, indicated in each plot for fitting the data within the peak region; metapeak flanking regions are in real bp relative to the metapeak region.

D MOA-seq coverage is positively correlated with gene regulation. Previous studies demonstrated that gene expression levels and chromatin accessibility show positive correlation at proximal promoters [ 29 , 30 ]. To examine this relationship for MOA-seq in a genome-wide manner, we sorted the 36, maize genes into quintiles based on their steady-state mRNA levels from matched earshoot tissues, and inspected MOA-seq profiles around the TSSs.

Together, these analyses establish compelling evidence for our starting hypothesis that MOA-seq footprints can define regulatory loci likely to be occupied by DNA-binding proteins. Global chromatin structure assays such as ATAC-seq, DNAse-seq, and DNS-seq identify accessible chromatin regions, but their larger average footprint profiles may reduce the accuracy of footprint analysis [ 36 ].

In contrast, given the small average size of The number of individual sites for individual MOA-identified motifs ranged from less than to more than 6, To characterize their distribution relative to genes, we split them into groups of those found within repetitive DNA, or not. Plotting their positional tendencies relative to genes, we found that the median distance to TSS for motifs not within repeats showed a remarkable clustering within bp proximal to the promoters Fig 5C.

Higher resolution TSS annotations [ 39 ] may better refine the positional locations of these motifs. For each of the motifs, we produced summary catalog files for the dyad motifs S6 File and the oligos motifs S7 File. These files provide reference documents, one page per motif family, listing the total number of sites, percentage found in annotated repeats, the sequence LOGOs, positional frequency distributions around TSSs, local base frequencies, and average local MOA coverage.

C Median distance to the nearest transcription start site TSS plotted for each motif found in regions annotated as within repeats IR, grey or in non-repetitive regions NR, red. Given the relatively small size of MFs, we tested whether the motifs identified at MFs were enriched at known TF-binding sites which also have the canonical motif. We then tested whether those overlapping MFs were enriched for MOA-defined motifs that closely resemble the canonical motif for the respective TF summarized in Fig 6.

Genome-wide, om and a similarly abundant control motif om were enriched 6. Similar enrichment trends were also observed in the entire mappable genome Fig 6B , gen. Genome-wide, dym was enriched Similarly, among the top 5 motifs enriched at KN1, the motif family om includes two matches to the core TGCA motif associated with KN1 binding sites [ 34 ].

In addition to this global agreement, we observed genic level overlap illustrated by the TF vs. MF profiles around the tip1 gene Fig 6J. Given that members of TF families often share similar motifs, and that multiple members of a TF family can be co-expressed, there may exist some discrepancies between the consensus sequence of motif families defined from our global assay with MOA-footprints compared to those from individual TF ChIP assays. The asterisk for G dym33 indicates that only a portion of the larger dym33 logo is shown.

In addition to gene-proximal promoters, distal enhancers and long range chromatin contacts play important but not fully understood roles in gene regulation. Proximity ligation methods for detecting 3D chromatin contacts, such as HiC and ChIA-PET have been instrumental in the identification of long distance chromatin interactions. We analyzed MOA-seq coverage at previously characterized candidate enhancer and chromatin interaction sites, summarized in Fig 7.

We found that the majority of maize candidate enhancers in husk and inner shoot tissue [ 13 ] and long-range chromatin interaction sites in seedlings [ 41 ] overlapped with MOA peaks Fig 7A. To explore these at a regional level, we examined two well-characterized long-distance regulatory elements in maize around the genes tb1 and ub3 , both of which are related to important agronomic traits [ 42 , 43 ].

Genome-wide overlap analysis of base pairs shared between MOA and previously defined enhancers husk, IST, from [ 13 ] and long-range interaction sites seedling, from [ 41 ]. C Interaction region of the Kb distal enhancer region left zoom-in panel and promoter region right zoom-in panel of TB1.

Motif names, positions Mo and consensus logos, identified within MOA-seq footprints, are indicated. Dashed lines connect consensus motifs identified in both interacting regions. The best database hit footprintdb with the similarity p-value are indicated.

The 65 Kb upstream distal enhancer region of the TB1 gene includes large-effect quantitative trait loci associated with plant morphology traits [ 46 ]. The distal control region includes a hopscotch transposon insertion site which enhances the expression of TB1 in domesticated maize compared to its wild ancestor, teosinte, affecting apical dominance and tiller bud dormancy [ 42 ].

Inspecting the MOA-seq profiles, we detected strong MFs in the proximal tb1 promoter and distal upstream region Fig 7C , light blue highlights. Given their long-distance interaction and the known regulatory role of the hopscotch insertion site in tb1 expression, we speculated that both regions may share regulatory elements.

To test this hypothesis, we inspected motifs identified within MFs for the bp regions directly upstream of the hopscotch insertion Fig 7C , distal enhancer zoomed area and tb1 TS site Fig 7C , proximal promoter zoomed area. Among the motifs found at these two relatively small regions, we found four different motifs, two dyad and two oligo motifs, that were indeed shared between the distal and proximal regions.

Taken together, all of the findings reported here demonstrate the potential for MOA-seq to pinpoint candidate promoter TF-binding sites at promoters and intergenic loci. A comprehensive understanding of gene regulation requires at least the knowledge of all cis -acting targets of regulatory factors genome-wide. These ACRs are known to be enriched for TF-binding sites and contain similar amounts of functional variation compared to gene coding regions [ 8 ].

However, given the relatively large size of ACRs [ 17 ], pinpointing the best candidates for cis -elements remains challenging and often limited to individual TFs showing overlap with ChIP-seq data. MOA-seq includes optimizations during library construction aimed to enhance scalability and reduce loss of small fragments, resulting in fewer PCR cycles being required for sufficient library concentrations.

Together, these key steps make MOA-seq applicable to high-throughput experiments. Defining the midpoints of genome-aligned fragments of MNase digested chromatin has been proven useful, originally to define the center of nucleosome positions [ 47 ], and later for sub-nucleosomal particles [ 10 , 22 ]. Accordingly, we have incorporated fragment midpoint analysis as a key step Fig 1 , Step 4 defining the footprints expected to be centered on DNA sequence elements bound by their cognate DNA binding protein.

To date, relatively few studies have used MNase to examine small fragments from subnucleosomal particles in plants [ 21 , 10 , 12 ]. According to a recent study in Arabidopsis, Tn5 digest recovers only a subset of the accessible chromatin as compared to MNase [ 12 ]. This difference has been primarily attributed to the larger molecular weight of the various nucleases used Tn5, 53 kDa; DNaseI, 32 kDa vs.

MNase, 17 kDa. Other reasons, such as the use of crosslinking, preferred for MOA-seq but not ATAC-seq, or plant growth and harvest conditions, could also contribute to differences between MOA-seq and other chromatin accessibility profiling methods. TFs mostly bind to short, specific DNA sequences allowing the determination of motifs for recognized cis -targets [ 48 , 49 ]. Recent progress in footprint calling approaches have offered multiple strategies of increasingly high-resolution for motif discovery using open chromatin assays such as ATAC-seq [ 16 , 50 ].

We found that despite their small size, the MFs were significantly enriched for sequences similar to those previously identified as potential motifs for TFs using in silico , in vitro , or in vivo methods [ 37 ]. It will be important to validate these predicted motifs by functional assays to establish what proportion of them are genuinely bound by TFs. Comparing our MOA-seq vs. ChIP-seq for more than TFs showed strong, but not complete overlap Fig 6I , suggesting that these methods identify similar genomic sites.

However the lack of a complete overlap could result from one of a few possibilities, including the differences in tissue earshoot vs. In addition, we can not exclude the possibility that the multiple different cell types in our earshoot could result in failure to detect footprints, especially those from minority cell types.

Lastly, the large TF study sampled most of the TF families, but not all their members, which could also contribute to the lack of complete overlap. Possible explanations for this exception could be the repetitive nature of the top RA1 candidate binding site GA n , which may reduce unique mappability, especially given the short reads of both MOA and RA1 ChIP-seq sequencing. In addition to local TF overlaps, we also found considerable coincidence of MFs with previously identified intergenic enhancers and long-distance chromatin interaction sites.

This overlap was particularly strong for enhancers defined via multiple epigenomic marks and chromatin accessibility [ 13 ]. However, we can not exclude the possibility that some of these intergenic sites may be non-annotated genes. Consistent with this idea, we observed that some of these candidate enhancers displayed gene-like features such as RNA coverage or were annotated as genes in previous B73 assemblies S7 Fig.

Additional analyses and integration with other epigenomic information will be key to advance functional tests needed to ascertain the predictive power and myriad hypotheses generated from knowledge of these motifs. This approach and the resulting cistrome atlas represents the most comprehensive map of putative TF-binding sites produced for a crop species. This relatively simple and scalable genome-wide native chromatin structure assay is expected to be applicable to attempts to broadly define and analyze gene regulatory networks.

Knowledge of chromatin landscapes should help focus genome editing and accelerate larger applied research efforts such as those guiding precision agriculture and medicine. Earshoots from B73 wild-type maize were harvested from field-grown plants during mid-morning. The tissue harvesting for materials used in this paper is the same as that used for nuclease sensitivity profiling, DNS-seq, as previously described [ 7 ].

Multiple earshoots were ground frozen in liquid nitrogen, followed by subsequent aliquoting of the frozen powder for multiple preparation replicates. It includes tissue fixation, nuclei isolation, MNAse digestion, library preparation, and library size selection. The size-selected indexed libraries were subjected to an equimolar pool of 10 libraries summarized in S1 Table.

The 10 libraries correspond to 2 replicates of each size class, A, B, C, and D, and technical replicates of the two B samples. The technical replicates are from the production of two different libraries made from the light digest pools for B biorep1 and B biorep2. All other parameters were set to their defaults in CutAdapt version 1. All other parameters were set to their defaults in Bowtie 2 version 2.

Aligned reads were processed using various programs from the BEDTools suite [ 54 , 55 ], as described below. We applied the iSeg peak calling algorithm [ 56 ] to detect peaks in each MOA-seq read coverage file using a range of "BC" stringencies as previously applied to DNS-seq data [ 7 ]. We set the BC values to: 1. The settings used are minimum window length of 20 bp and maximum window length of bp. When computing the sample statistics, we removed the global zero regions in each MOA-seq to reduce the degree of distortion caused by sparsity.

If needed, adjacent book-ended peaks or those separated by 1 bp were merged to produce the final peaks BED files. To optimize the comparisons across different datasets and genome assemblies B73v3 and B73v5 we used a genomic fraction equivalency approach to select peaks that captured 0.

Unique reads were filtered by mapping quality q13 and PCR duplicates removed using Samtools v. Transcript accumulation was analyzed in R v. Several published or shared datasets were analyzed. We obtained a recently published dataset of ATAC-seq peaks from nuclei isolated from 1 cm field-grown earshoots [ 31 , 32 ].

For knotted1 [ 34 ] and fasciated ear4 [ 33 ] we obtained published ChIP-seq peaks and used their genomic coordinates as central features to plot the average local MOA-seq coverage. Some of the peaks were below the minimum size limit for RSAT input 24 bp. For these, we expanded the peaks to 24 bp to retain them in the input data.

NsitePL with the PlantProm database [ 38 ], which includes 3, previously identified plant TF-binding sites found in experimentally tested promoter sequences, was further used to identify putative TFs and motifs underlying MOA-seq peaks. For each of the eight light-digest libraries, the 2—3 digestions chosen for pooling are indicated yellow boxes.

B Agilent Bioanalyzer electropherograms red line trace plots for the 10 libraries after BluePippin-based size selection. Inset box shows upper purple line and lower green line internal size standards marked in the densitometry plots for all ten final libraries with sample and library ID table. A Browser screenshot from a kb region around the maize tb1 gene showing congruence of MOA-seq profiles with those of open chromatin from DNS-seq [ 7 ].

Browser tracks show "Clean Repeats excluding dust," from plants. Genome browser views of regions of the genome showing MOA-seq peak segments from this study along with previously published comparable earshoot peaks of open chromatin profiling assays from MNase-based DNS-seq Turpin et al. Other tracks are displayed as described in S3 Fig.

The motif families were ranked according to the percent per family that intersected peaks for each TF. The top five MOA-seq Motif families are and the families shown yellow highlight and sequences associated with the binding sites red are indicated. MOA coverage around annotated previously characterized intergenic enhancers [ 13 ], distal regulatory regions [ 44 ], or TF-binding sites [ 27 ] are shown for two examples A, B from genome browser windows as described in S3 and S4 Figs.

These regions, initially classified as intergenic, show some gene characteristics not depicted such as overlapping mRNA coverage, uninterrupted open-reading frame and TF-binding sites up and downstream. Read-normalized coverage from combined libraries aligned to B73v3 and used as input for peak segmentation with the iSeg algorithm.

MFs fragment centers, frenters file produced using a sliding window average to enhance detection of groups of reads with shared centrally-located regions, combined from for all libraries ABCDc aligned to B73v3 and used as input for peak segmentation with the iSeg algorithm.

The entire set has motifs are indexed to , total sites which can be merged into , non-overlapping contigs. Read-normalized coverage from combined biological and technical replicates of libraries corresponding to "B" cm sized earshoots, aligned to B73v3 and used for MOA coverage trend plots. Read-normalized coverage from combined bio-replicate 1 libraries of earshoot MOA-seq aligned to B73v5 in 20 bp window bins.

Read-normalized coverage from combined bio-replicate 2 libraries of earshoot MOA-seq aligned to B73v5 in 20 bp window bins. Read-normalized coverage from combined libraries of earshoot MOA-seq aligned to B73v5 in 20 bp window bins and used as input for peak segmentation. Read-normalized coverage profile from MNase partial digest DNA control aligned to B73v5 in 20 bp window bins and used as input for peak segmentation.

The motifs 75 dyad plus oligo are sorted by family name and include information about abundance, consensus sequences, and average genic location. Bed files of peak segments called by iSeg at a series of cutoffs; bc 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9.

MOA-seq read- and quantile-normalized fragment coverage scores were used as the input. Included are the 5 BED files for B73v3, a readme txt file, and a summary statistics table xlsx captured from Table Browser for files on UCSC genome browser, genomaize, for each iSeg bigbed source file. MFs sliding window capturing fragment midpoint clusters scores were used as the input.

Bed files of peak segments called by iSeg at a series of cutoffs bc 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 9 for each replicate; bc 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 9 for combined. Included are the multi-series output iSeg BED files for each input, and a readme txt file. MOA-seq read- and quantile-normalized MF frenters coverage scores from B73v5 alignments for replicate 1, replicate 2, or combined were used as the input.

Included are the 7-series output iSeg BED files for each input, and a readme txt file. We thank Julia Engelhorn and Jen Kennedy for their helpful comments on the manuscript and Shivansh Singh for assistance with motif base composition plots.

Abstract Elucidating the transcriptional regulatory networks that underlie growth and development requires robust ways to define the complete set of transcription factor TF binding sites. Author summary Understanding gene regulation remains a central goal of modern biology. Introduction One of the fundamental drivers of phenotypic variation is the activation or repression of gene transcription.

Results A high-throughput approach to identify high-resolution TF footprints genome-wide To define specific candidate TF-binding sites within accessible chromatin regions, we developed MOA-seq to capture the putative footprints of native DNA-protein interactions. Download: PPT. Cistrome Project. Welcome to Cistrome The cistrome refers to "the set of cis-acting targets of a trans-acting factor on a genome-wide scale, also known as the in vivo genome-wide location of transcription factor binding-sites or histone modifications ".

Cistrome A nalysis P ipeline An integrative and reproducible bioinformatics data analysis platform based on Galaxy open source framework. Visit site ». Cistrome Cancer A comprehensive resource for predicted transcription factor TF targets and enhancer profiles in cancers.

Cistrome-GO A webserver for functional enrichment analysis of transcription factor binding sites. CistromeDB Toolkit A webserver to help you find what factors regulate your gene of interest, what factors bind in your interval or have a significant binding overlap with your peak set by integrating datasets in CistromeDB.

Lisa A bioinformatics tool developed to predict the transcriptional regulators TRs of differentially expressed or co-expressed gene sets.

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The Importance of the Own Cognate DNA Motif in the Generation of a Cistrome. A commonly held view is that cis-regulatory sequences are essential in the. At the epigenome level, patterns of accessible genome change between. NP and TP myometrium, leading to the altered enrichment of binding motifs. The putative regulatory cistromes were defined using either ChIP-seq peaks or from TF motif occurrence in the inferred chromatin models.