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Flags and pennants investopedia forex

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Flag: A flag is a small rectangle pattern that slopes against the previous trend. If the previous move was up, then the flag would slope down. If the move was down, then the flag would slope up. Because flags are usually too short in duration to actually have reaction highs and lows, the price action just needs to be contained within two parallel trendlines. Pennant: A pennant is a small symmetrical triangle that begins wide and converges as the pattern matures like a cone.

The slope is usually neutral. Sometimes there will not be specific reaction highs and lows from which to draw the trendlines and the price action should just be contained within the converging trendlines. Duration: Flags and pennants are short-term patterns that can last from 1 to 12 weeks.

There is some debate on the timeframe and some consider 8 weeks to be pushing the limits for a reliable pattern. Ideally, these patterns will form between 1 and 4 weeks. Once a flag becomes more than 12 weeks old, it would be classified as a rectangle. A pennant more than 12 weeks old would turn into a symmetrical triangle.

The reliability of patterns that fall between 8 and 12 weeks is debatable. Break: For a bullish flag or pennant, a break above resistance signals that the previous advance has resumed. For a bearish flag or pennant, a break below support signals that the previous decline has resumed. Volume: Volume should be heavy during the advance or decline that forms the flagpole. Heavy volume provides legitimacy for the sudden and sharp move that creates the flagpole.

An expansion of volume on the resistance support break lends credence to the validity of the formation and the likelihood of continuation. The double top is one of the most popular patterns in trading. It consists of 2 tops at nearly the same level with a valley in between, which creates the neckline.

The second top does not break the level of the first top, so the price retested this level and tried to make a higher high, but failed. Price breaking the neckline and closing below it would complete the pattern. Conservative traders look for additional confirmation and aggressive traders may enter a bearish position from the second top. The target can be estimated by measuring the height of the pattern and projecting this downwards from the neckline. Common stop levels are just above the neckline, halfway between the neckline and the tops or above the tops.

The poor showing of this formation further emphasizes that many double top patterns do not decline far and this formation may not be worth trading at all. The question then becomes, is it worth taking profits on a confirmed double top? Those are good questions. If you sell when the double top is confirmed, you may be selling near the ultimate low. For some reason, I expected it to be higher.

If one plays by the rules and waits for an upside breakout, then few triple bottoms fail to continue moving up, many times substantially. Just for kicks, I measured the average gain for those formations with a third bottom above the low posted by the second one.

The differences are statistically significant but it may surprise you to learn the average price difference between the two bottoms is only 35 cents. Still, there are a number of formations that perform worse, so there is no reason for concern. One surprising finding about triple tops is when the price of the highest high in the third top is above the second top. The differences are statistically significant meaning that die results likely are not due to chance.

As I was selecting cup-with-handle formations, it became apparent that locating cups during an uptrend is important. All the cups are U-shaped V-shaped ones being removed. Also removed from the study were cups without handles. To me, a cup without a handle is a rounding bottom. Most references to head and shoulders are to the tops, and bottoms are known as inverse.

When a formation appears with more than the standard two shoulders and one head it is called a complex head-and-shoulders pattern. They are, after all, head-and-shoulder tops too. Except for appearance, there is not much difference between a normal headand-shoulders top and a complex one. Add a dual head or a few extra shoulders to a regular formation and you have a complex head-and-shoulders top. The left shoulders often have higher volume than the corresponding right ones.

If you ignore the labels for a moment, the inner price action looks like a rounding top. This smooth price rollover is common for complex head-andshoulder formations. Of course, the flat head shape for a multiple shoulder pattern Figure Investors typically enter into a long position when the price rises above the resistance of the neckline. The first and third trough are considered shoulders, and the second peak forms the head.

A move above the resistance, also known as the neckline, is used as a signal of a sharp move higher. Only 15 formations out of almost fail to perform as expected. It is not so much a chart formation as it is a warning to exit the stock quickly after a dramatic decline. In both cases, some type of exuberance is driving the stock to create a gap. It sometimes is nothing more than the stock being worth less simply because of a dividend distribution.

At other times, the repercussions are more severe. The pattern differs from the cup-with-handle and scallop formations in subtle ways, so be sure to study those formations if you are unsure about identification. Contrary to Bulkowski, most traders seem to look at these as more likely to break down. Because of the conflicting ideas, I would ignore this pattern and move to some other indicator.

The bump-and-run reversal bottom is a chart pattern that is a surprisingly good performer in both bull and bear markets. It has a low break even failure rate and high average rise after the breakout. Discovered by Thomas Bulkowski in Many would recognize this formation as a cup-with-handle, and indeed it is.

But it is also a BARR bottom, as a cup does not depend on a down-sloping trendline and a larger handle on the left such as that shown in Figure 7. Whatever you call the formation, the result is still the same: Prices move higher. The overall formation reminds me of a mountain range. Investor enthusiasm continues high as prices round over at the top, then diminishes on the far side.

When the mountains end, prices decline sharply and continue moving down. That is a BARR. Prices bump-up, round over, and run back down again. The formation is the visual representation of momentum. In appearance, the only difference between the two diamond patterns is the price trend leading to the formation.

For diamond tops, the prior price trend is upward, whereas diamond bottoms have price trends that lead down to the formation. The Diamond pattern is a rare, but reliable chart pattern. Diamond chart reversals rarely happen at market bottoms, it most often occurs at major tops and with high-volume.

Bulkowski emphasizes that a diamond bottom with a breakout move downward is ranked as being one the best performing patterns. You should always use a stop loss order when trading the diamond pattern. The proper location of your stop should be above the last top inside the diamond for bearish setups and below the last low of inside the diamond for bullish setups.

If you decide to trade this formation, do not expect a large price move. After careful consideration, I cannot recommend trading this formation. The primary belief behind this chart pattern is that prices will reverse the uptrend. They do not. Just a third of the formations reverse, whereas the others see prices continue higher.

The theory behind the formation says an investor can expect a large price move the day after an inside day;. Outside days often serve as part of a continuation pattern in the direction of the latest candlestick.

For example, a bullish outside day occurring during an uptrend is a signal that the uptrend is expected to continue. However, outside days can also act as reversal patterns depending on the context. The measured move down is a unique chart pattern best used as a tool to help predict where price is going.

The second leg of the measured move approaches the length and duration of the first leg. Once the measured move down completes, price often retraces to the corrective phase, too. That is invaluable information for swing traders.

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How to work with a forex robot A trendline that is angled up, or an up trendline, occurs where prices are experiencing higher highs and higher lows. Typically, the formation of the flag is accompanied by a period of declining volume, which recovers as price breaks out of the flag formation. Technical analysis. These patterns occur in the middle of a trend and signal that once a pattern has completed, the trend will most likely resume. Personal Finance. Popular Courses. Personal Finance.
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As price continues to converge, it will eventually reach the apex of the triangle; the closer to the apex price gets, the tighter and tighter price action becomes, thus making a breakout more immanent. Symmetrical: A symmetrical triangle can be simply defined as a downward sloping upper bound and an upward sloping lower bound in price. Ascending: An ascending triangle can be defined as a horizontal upper bound and upward sloping lower bound.

Descending: A descending triangle can be defined as a downward sloping upper bound and horizontal lower bound. Flags are a pause in the trend, where the price becomes confined in a small price range between parallel lines. This pause in the middle of a trend gives the pattern a flag-like appearance. Flags are generally short in duration, lasting several bars, and do not contain price swings back and forth as a trading range or trend channel would.

Flags may be parallel or upward or downward sloping, as shown in below. Pennants are similar to a triangle, yet smaller; pennants are generally created by only several bars. While not a hard and fast rule, if a pennant contains more than 20 price bars, it can be considered a triangle.

The pattern is created as prices converge, covering a relatively small price range mid-trend; this gives the pattern a pennant appearance. Often there will be pauses in a trend in which the price action moves sideways, bound between parallel support and resistance lines. Rectangles, also known as trading ranges, can last for short periods or many years. This pattern is very common and can be seen often intra-day, as well as on longer-term time frames.

Continuation patterns provide some logic to the price action. By knowing the patterns, a trader can create a trading plan to take advantage of common patterns. The patterns present trading opportunities that may not be seen using other methods. Unfortunately, simply because the pattern is called a "continuation pattern" does not mean it is always reliable. A pattern may appear during a trend, but a trend reversal may still occur.

It is also quite possible that, once we have drawn the pattern on our charts, the bounds may be slightly penetrated, but a full breakout does not occur. This is called a false breakout and could occur multiple times before the pattern is actually broken and a continuation or a reversal occurs. Rectangles, due to their popularity and easy visibility , are highly susceptible to false breakouts. Patterns can also be subjective, as what one trader sees is not what another trader sees, or how another trader would draw or define the pattern in real time.

This is not necessarily a bad thing, as it can provide traders with a unique perspective on the market. It will require time and practice for the trader to develop his or her skill in finding patterns, drawing them and formulating a plan on how to use them. Continuation patterns, which include triangles, flags, pennants and rectangles, provide some logic on what the market may potentially do. Often these patterns are seen mid-trend and indicate a continuation of that trend, once the pattern is complete.

In order for the trend to continue, the pattern must break out in the correct direction. While continuation patterns can help traders make trading decisions, the patterns are not always reliable. Potential problems include a reversal in a trend instead of a continuation and multiple false breakouts once the pattern is beginning to be established. Technical Analysis Basic Education. Trading Skills. Technical Analysis.

Your Money. Personal Finance. Your Practice. Popular Courses. Table of Contents Expand. Table of Contents. Varieties of Continuation Patterns. One interesting finding concerns the volume trend. This means if you restrict your selections to those showing receding volume throughout the formation, you should do better.

On the flip side, you will also be passing up many formations in which you could trade profitably. The volume pattern is also different from falling wedges. In the descending broadening wedge formation, the volume tends to increase over time but with falling wedges, it decreases. With bullish numbers like these, it makes the failure rate seem tolerable. Most technicians agree, the rectangle can serve as either a reversal or continuation formation.

As a reversal pattern, it ends a trend either up or down. As a continuation pattern, it signifies a pause in the prevailing trend, with the expectation that the prior trend will eventually resume. In either case, the rectangle shows a tug of war between buyers and sellers.

Only a third of the formations classify as true double bottoms. They are the ones that have prices rising above the confirmation point, which is the highest high between the two lows. Only those formations with confirmed breakouts are evaluated in this study. A double bottom is not a true double bottom until prices rise above the confirmation point. There were formations that looked like double bottoms, but their price trends eventually moved below the second bottom.

An additional formations performed as expected by rising to the confirmation point and continuing higher. If you buy a stock just after it touches the second bottom, your chances of having a successful trade are one in three. In other words, wait for prices to rise above the confirmation point. The double top is one of the most popular patterns in trading.

It consists of 2 tops at nearly the same level with a valley in between, which creates the neckline. The second top does not break the level of the first top, so the price retested this level and tried to make a higher high, but failed. Price breaking the neckline and closing below it would complete the pattern. Conservative traders look for additional confirmation and aggressive traders may enter a bearish position from the second top.

The target can be estimated by measuring the height of the pattern and projecting this downwards from the neckline. Common stop levels are just above the neckline, halfway between the neckline and the tops or above the tops. The poor showing of this formation further emphasizes that many double top patterns do not decline far and this formation may not be worth trading at all. The question then becomes, is it worth taking profits on a confirmed double top? Those are good questions.

If you sell when the double top is confirmed, you may be selling near the ultimate low. For some reason, I expected it to be higher. If one plays by the rules and waits for an upside breakout, then few triple bottoms fail to continue moving up, many times substantially. Just for kicks, I measured the average gain for those formations with a third bottom above the low posted by the second one.

The differences are statistically significant but it may surprise you to learn the average price difference between the two bottoms is only 35 cents. Still, there are a number of formations that perform worse, so there is no reason for concern. One surprising finding about triple tops is when the price of the highest high in the third top is above the second top. The differences are statistically significant meaning that die results likely are not due to chance. As I was selecting cup-with-handle formations, it became apparent that locating cups during an uptrend is important.

All the cups are U-shaped V-shaped ones being removed. Also removed from the study were cups without handles. To me, a cup without a handle is a rounding bottom. Most references to head and shoulders are to the tops, and bottoms are known as inverse. When a formation appears with more than the standard two shoulders and one head it is called a complex head-and-shoulders pattern. They are, after all, head-and-shoulder tops too.

Except for appearance, there is not much difference between a normal headand-shoulders top and a complex one. Add a dual head or a few extra shoulders to a regular formation and you have a complex head-and-shoulders top. The left shoulders often have higher volume than the corresponding right ones.

If you ignore the labels for a moment, the inner price action looks like a rounding top. This smooth price rollover is common for complex head-andshoulder formations. Of course, the flat head shape for a multiple shoulder pattern Figure Investors typically enter into a long position when the price rises above the resistance of the neckline. The first and third trough are considered shoulders, and the second peak forms the head.

A move above the resistance, also known as the neckline, is used as a signal of a sharp move higher. Only 15 formations out of almost fail to perform as expected. It is not so much a chart formation as it is a warning to exit the stock quickly after a dramatic decline.

In both cases, some type of exuberance is driving the stock to create a gap. It sometimes is nothing more than the stock being worth less simply because of a dividend distribution. At other times, the repercussions are more severe. The pattern differs from the cup-with-handle and scallop formations in subtle ways, so be sure to study those formations if you are unsure about identification.

Contrary to Bulkowski, most traders seem to look at these as more likely to break down. Because of the conflicting ideas, I would ignore this pattern and move to some other indicator. The bump-and-run reversal bottom is a chart pattern that is a surprisingly good performer in both bull and bear markets. It has a low break even failure rate and high average rise after the breakout.

Discovered by Thomas Bulkowski in Many would recognize this formation as a cup-with-handle, and indeed it is. But it is also a BARR bottom, as a cup does not depend on a down-sloping trendline and a larger handle on the left such as that shown in Figure 7. Whatever you call the formation, the result is still the same: Prices move higher.

The overall formation reminds me of a mountain range. Investor enthusiasm continues high as prices round over at the top, then diminishes on the far side. When the mountains end, prices decline sharply and continue moving down. That is a BARR. Prices bump-up, round over, and run back down again. The formation is the visual representation of momentum. In appearance, the only difference between the two diamond patterns is the price trend leading to the formation. For diamond tops, the prior price trend is upward, whereas diamond bottoms have price trends that lead down to the formation.

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How to trade Flags and Pennants Chart Patterns Forex Trading Strategy

A pennant is a pattern used in technical analysis described by a triangular flag shape that signals a continuation. Flags are areas of tight consolidation in price action showing a counter-trend move that follows directly after a sharp directional movement in price. The. Pennants are continuation patterns where a period of consolidation is followed by a breakout. The two differ by duration and the appearance of a 'flagpole'.